Does Thyroid Supplementation Accelerate Tricyclic Antidepressant Response? A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature
ABSTRACT The delayed onset of therapeutic response to antidepressants remains a major problem in the treatment of depression. Among the strategies to accelerate response to treatment, the early addition of thyroid hormone to antidepressants has been suggested as a viable method. The authors performed a meta-analysis of the literature on the use of thyroid hormone supplementation to accelerate the treatment of depression to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support the clinical efficacy of this strategy.
Both a computer-aided search of the National Library of Medicine MEDLINE and an intensive search by hand were conducted to identify all double-blind, placebo-controlled studies assessing the concomitant administration of thyroid hormone and antidepressant to accelerate clinical response in patients with nonrefractory depression.
Six studies were identified. All were conducted with triiodothyronine (T(3)) and a tricyclic antidepressant. Five of the six studies found T(3) to be significantly more effective than placebo in accelerating clinical response. The pooled, weighted effect size index was 0.58, and the average effect was highly significant. Further, the effects of T(3) acceleration were greater as the percentage of women participating in the study increased.
This meta-analysis supports the efficacy of T(3) in accelerating clinical response to tricyclic antidepressants in patients with nonrefractory depression. Furthermore, women may be more likely than men to benefit from this intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To be used in conjunction with ‘Psychological management of unipolar depression’ [Lampe et al. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;127(Suppl. 443):24–37] and ‘Lifestyle management of unipolar depression’ [Berk et al. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;127(Suppl. 443):38–54]. To provide clinically relevant recommendations for the use of pharmacological treatments in depression derived from a literature review. Method Using our previous Clinical Practice Guidelines [Malhi et al. Clinical practice recommendations for bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009;119(Suppl. 439):27–46] as a foundation, these clinician guidelines target key practical considerations when prescribing pharmacotherapy. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted using electronic database searches (PubMed, MEDLINE), and the findings have been synthesized and integrated alongside clinical experience. ResultsThe pharmacotherapy of depression is an iterative process that often results in partial and non-response. Beyond the initiation of antidepressants, the options within widely used strategies, such as combining agents and switching between agents, are difficult to proscribe because of the paucity of pertinent research. However, there is some evidence for second-line strategies, and a non-prescriptive algorithm can be derived that is based broadly on principles rather than specific steps. Conclusion Depression is by its very nature a heterogeneous illness that is consequently difficult to treat. Invariably, situation-specific factors often play a significant role and must be considered, especially in the case of partial and non-response. Consulting with colleagues and trialling alternate treatment paradigms are essential strategies in the management of depression.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 05/2013; 127(s443). DOI:10.1111/acps.12122 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Major depression is a highly prevalent disorder and is predicted to be the second leading cause of disease burden by 2020. Although many antidepressant drugs are currently available, they are far from optimal. Approximately 50% of patients do not respond to initial first line antidepressant treatment, while approximately one third fail to achieve remission following several pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, several weeks or months of treatment are often required before clinical improvement, if any, is reported. Moreover, most of the commonly used antidepressants have been primarily designed to increase synaptic availability of serotonin and/or noradrenaline and although they are of therapeutic benefit to many patients, it is clear that other therapeutic targets are required if we are going to improve the response and remission rates. It is clear that more effective, rapid-acting antidepressants with novel mechanisms of action are required. The purpose of this review is to outline the current strategies that are being taken in both preclinical and clinical settings for identifying superior antidepressant drugs. The realisation that ketamine has rapid antidepressant-like effects in treatment resistant patients has reenergised the field. Further, developing an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients by drugs such as ketamine may uncover novel therapeutic targets that can be exploited to meet the Olympian challenge of developing faster, better and stronger antidepressant drugs.European Journal of Pharmacology 08/2014; 753. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.07.046 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the publication in 2000 of the APA's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, 2nd Edition (1), two important safety concerns have emerged (hepa-totoxicity with nefazodone and suicide risk with antidepressants), and two new antidepressants have been approved for use (escitalopram and duloxetine). This watch describes these develop-ments as well as evidence that has accrued since 2000 in other areas related to the treatment of major depressive disorder. ANTIDEPRESSANTS AND OTHER SOMATIC TREATMENTS Hepatotoxicity with nefazodone The guideline recommends the serotonin modulator nefazodone as an effective medication for the treatment of depression. However, before initiating or continuing treatment with nefazo-done, consideration should be given to the recent reports of life-threatening hepatic failure in patients treated with nefazodone (2–8). These reports have led the Food and Drug Adminis-tration (FDA) to change the drug's labeling, adding a black box warning of possible liver failure leading to death and/or a need for transplant and contraindicating the drug in patients who The American Psychiatric Association (APA) practice guidelines are developed by expert work groups us-ing an explicit methodology that includes rigorous review of available evidence, broad peer review of it-erative drafts, and formal approval by the APA Assembly and Board of Trustees. APA practice guidelines are intended to assist psychiatrists in clinical decision making. They are not intended to be a standard of care. The ultimate judgment regarding a particular clinical procedure or treatment plan must be made by the psychiatrist in light of the clinical data presented by the patient and the diagnostic and treatment op-tions available. Guideline watches summarize significant developments in practice that have occurred since publication of an APA practice guideline. Watches may be authored and reviewed by experts asso-ciated with the original guideline development effort and are approved for publication by APA's Executive Committee on Practice Guidelines. Thus, watches represent the opinion of the authors and approval of the Executive Committee but not policy of the APA.01/2005; 3(1). DOI:10.1176/foc.3.1.34