Dietary agents in cancer prevention: flavonoids and isoflavonoids.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 2312 Food Sciences Building, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.
Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 7.75). 05/2001; 90(2-3):157-77. DOI: 10.1016/S0163-7258(01)00137-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Flavones and isoflavones may play a prominent role in cancer prevention since these compounds are found in numerous plants that are associated with reduced cancer rates. This article reviews recent epidemiological and animal data on isoflavones and flavones and their role in cancer prevention. It covers aspects of the bioavailability of these dietary constituents and explores their mechanism of action. Human epidemiology data comes primarily from studies in which foods rich in isoflavones or flavones are associated with cancer rates. This approach has been particularly useful with isoflavones because of their abundance in specific foods, including soy foods. The bioavailability of flavones and isoflavones has been shown to be influenced by their chemical form in foods (generally glycoside conjugates), their hydrophobicity, susceptibility to degradation, the microbial flora of the consumer, and the food matrix. Some information is available on how these factors influence isoflavone bioavailability, but the information on flavones is more limited. Many mechanisms of action have been identified for isoflavone/flavone prevention of cancer, including estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity, antiproliferation, induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, prevention of oxidation, induction of detoxification enzymes, regulation of the host immune system, and changes in cellular signaling. It is expected that some combination of these mechanisms will be found to be responsible for cancer prevention by these compounds. Compelling data suggest that flavones and isoflavones contribute to cancer prevention; however, further investigations will be required to clarify the nature of the impact and interactions between these bioactive constituents and other dietary components.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of the intake of antioxidant polyphenols such as resveratrol and others on survival and different parameters of life quality has been a matter of debate in the last years. We have studied here the effects of the polyphenols resveratrol and kaempferol added to the diet in a murine model undergoing long-term hypercaloric diet. Using 50 mice for each condition, we have monitored weight, survival, biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and aspartate aminotransferase, neuromuscular coordination measured with the rotarod test and morphological aspect of stained sections of liver and heart histological samples. Our data show that mice fed since they are 3-months-old with hypercaloric diet supplemented with any of these polyphenols reduced their weight by about 5-7% with respect to the controls fed only with hypercaloric diet. We also observed that mice fed with any of the polyphenols had reduced levels of glucose, insulin and cholesterol, and better marks in the rotarod test, but only after 1 year of treatment, that is, during senescence. No effect was observed in the rest of the parameters studied. Furthermore, although treatment with hypercaloric diets induced large changes in the pattern of gene expression in liver, we found no significant changes in gene expression induced by the presence of any of the polyphenols. Thus, our data indicate that addition of resveratrol or kaempferol to mice food produces an initial decrease in weight in mice subjected to hypercaloric diet, but beneficial effects in other parameters such as blood glucose, insulin and cholesterol, and neuromuscular coordination, only appear after prolonged treatments.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112825. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Phenols have been widely studied and confirmes to posses diverse bioactivities which could be beneficial to human health. Alfalfa seeds (Medico sativa L.), but also the soy beens (Glycine max L.) which will be part of this study, belong to the Fabaceae family, generally known by their often edible seeds. Nutritional properties of Fabaceae have been investigated for a long time and the legumes have been shown to have many beneficial health effects. In addition to this two plants, clary sage (Salvia sclarea) is another important surse of health-promoting phytochemicals. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with potential beneficial effects on the menopausal symptoms. The object of the present research is to analyze polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of alfalfa sprouts, after a day until seven days of germination. A hydroalcoholic extract and ultrasound assited extraction performed a good polyphenolic compounds and a higher antioxidant activity level in the second, third, sixht and seventh day of germination. In this study it was found that the sprouts are a good source of bioactive compounds in our diet with health-promoting antioxidants.
    Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2013, 19(1), 105-110. 03/2013; 19(1):105-110.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In spite of its well-documented anticancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activity, the clinical development of curcumin has been limited by its poor oral bioavailability. Curcumin has low aqueous solubility and undergoes extensive first pass metabolism following oral dosing. We hypothesized that oral bioavailability of curcumin can be enhanced by increasing its absorption and decreasing its metabolic clearance simultaneously. To test this hypothesis, we formulated curcumin with naturally occurring UGT inhibitors (piperine, quercetin, tangeretin, and silibinin) in a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). Mouse liver microsome studies showed that silibinin and quercetin inhibited curcumin glucuronidation effectively. When dosed orally in mice, the SMEDDS containing curcumin alone increased curcumin glucuronide concentrations in plasma without significantly affecting parent drug concentration. Of the four inhibitors examined in vivo, silibinin significantly improved the Cmax (0.15 μM vs. 0.03 μM for curcumin SMEDDS) and the overall bioavailability (3.5-fold vs. curcumin SMEDDS) of curcumin. Previous studies have shown that silibinin has anticancer activity as well. Thus, co-delivery of silibinin with curcumin in SMEDDS represents a novel and promising approach to improve curcumin bioavailability.
    Drug delivery and translational research. 08/2014; 4(4):344-352.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014