A great many anthropometric studies contain the data of either males or females. Instead of presenting single-sex data, this study presents a method of using the female/male (F/M) ratio to estimate the dimensions of unknown body parts. Several studies that include the data for both sexes are used to develop the ratio. Statistical analysis is performed, including fitting to normal distribution. Stature, sitting shoulder height, shoulder breadth, and hip breadth are used in the study. The result of the analysis reveals the importance of using a different F/M ratio for each body part instead of adopting a single value for estimation.
"The BMI, co-morbidity, and extent of pathology are affected by complex sex and gender interaction as well. The average height for each sex is significantly different, with adult males usually being taller than adult females . This difference is attributed to sex chromosomal and hormonal differences  which together may increase susceptibility to injury in women. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rotator-cuff pathology is the most common cause of pain and disability in the shoulder. Examining the combined effect of biological and societal factors on disability would potentially identify existing differences between men and women with rotator cuff pathology which would help to provide suggestions for better models of care. Purpose of this study was to determine the overall differences in disability between men and women and to examine the relationship between factors that represent sex (biological factors) and gender (non-biological factors) with disability and satisfaction with surgical outcome 6 months after rotator cuff surgery.
Patients with impingement syndrome and/or rotator cuff tear who underwent rotator cuff surgery completed the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index, the American Shoulder & Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) outcome measures prior to surgery and 6 months post-operatively. They also rated their satisfaction with surgery at their follow-up appointment.
One hundred and seventy patients entered into the study (85 men and 85 women). One hundred and sixty patients (94%) completed the 6-month assessment. Women reported more disability both prior to and after surgery. Disability at 6 months was associated with pain-limited range of motion, participation limitation, age and strength. Satisfaction with surgery was associated with level of reported disability, expectations for improved pain, pain-limited range of motion and strength.
The results of this study indicate that women with rotator cuff pathology suffer from higher levels of pre- and post-operative disability and sex and gender qualities contribute to these differences. Gender-sensitive approach will help to identify existing differences between men and women which will help to promote more effective and tailored care by health professionals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Finite-element models of human body were introduced in the early 90's for passive safety systems designing. Performing geometrical personalization of such models is of primary interest for optimizing their biofidelity. Then, the purpose of this study was to bring a deeper insight on external and internal human body geometry, and to provide tools for personalized modeling. A geometrical database containing both external (full body anthropometry) and internal (morphometry of the spine, pelvis and rib cage) data measured on 85 volunteers was obtained thanks to classical anthropometrical measurements and using stereoradiographic 3D reconstructions methods. This database analysis yielded to a detailed description of both external and internal body geometry for healthy european subjects. It resulted also in the development and validation of a statistical method to estimate anthropometrical (external) and morphometrical (internal) parameters from about 200 external/external and external/internal anthropometrical relationships (simple or multiple linear models). Thanks to this method only 10 anthropometrical measurements may be used for the modeling of external (43 dimensions) and internal (155 dimensions) human body geometry (mean error: 2.3%(2σ :14.2%) ). At last, this study has brought a contribution to the stereoradiographic 3D reconstruction of the rib cage in order to obtain a geometrical personalization of the trunk bones(spine, pelvis, and rib cage) from frontal and lateral X-rays. The anthropometrical and morphometrical data collected and the tool for geometrical modeling developed still offer numerous possibilities in impact and comfort biomechanics and for clinical applications.
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