Accumulation and persistence of flea larvicidal activity in the immediate environment of cats treated with imidacloprid.
ABSTRACT To investigate the persistence of flea larvicidal activity in the immediate environment of cats treated with imidacloprid, eggs of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouché (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), from untreated donor cats, were incubated on samples of fleece blanket taken from the floor of cages used by treated or untreated cats for a total of 10 or 20 6-h periods over 2-4 weeks, respectively. Sufficient imidacloprid accumulated during these periods to reduce the emergence of adult fleas by 94.7-97.6% when the blankets were tested after 18 weeks' storage at room temperature. A typical laundry procedure (washing with detergent at 50 degrees C and low temperature tumble drying) removed this biological activity. Unwashed control blankets did not support the flea life-cycle as effectively as washed blankets or a sand substrate.
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ABSTRACT: The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis, is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. In addition to its annoyance to pets and humans, C. felis felis is responsible for flea bite allergy dermatitis and the transmission of dog tapeworm. The abiotic and biotic factors that affect the development of immature stages are reviewed with special emphasis given to those aspects directly affecting control. Factors influencing host selection and feeding by adults are summarized. Recent studies concerning mating and oviposition, especially as they impact the likelihood of survival by immatures, are discussed. There has been an increase in the number of reports of insecticide resistance in the past ten years. Greater attention has been placed on disrupting larval development in modern IPM programs. The immature stages of the cat flea are extremely susceptible to environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity and insect growth regulators (IGRs). In recent years, the control of cat fleas has increasingly relied on the use of IGRs applied to the host or to the indoor environment. Finally, we discuss advances in pesticide chemistry that provide tools for better control of adult fleas on the host.Annual Review of Entomology 02/1997; 42:451-73. · 13.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of imidacloprid (Advantage®) on the larval and adult stages of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) were studied in vivo and in vitro by means of light and electron microscopy. It was found that: 1. The compound acted rapidly on both larval and adult fleas, killing both stages within 20 min of contact. 2. When applied as a spot-on to the skin of dogs, the compound localized in the water-resistant lipid layer of the skin surface and in the hairs but not in the blood. 3. Thus, the compound was not taken up during sucking of the flea but was absorbed via the thin intersegmental membranes, since larval and adult fleas that had only external contact with imidacloprid-impregnated paper or with shaved hairs from imidacloprid-treated dogs showed reactions similar to those shown by fleas sitting on treated skin. 4. The compound led to a continuous blockage of insect-specific nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), causing tetanic muscle contractions within minutes of exposure. This manifested as intense trembling of the legs and pumping movements of the body. The affected flea stages remained motionless while the nerves and muscles were constantly and irreversibly destroyed due to hyperactivity. The ganglia of the head and thorax and the striated muscles of the flea body and legs were damaged first, whereas the intestinal movements (e.g., visible in larvae) took longer to exhibit damage. In summary, these studies show that imidacloprid kills larval and adult flea stages rapidly via the same mode of action and thus prevents the development of flea populations in human or animal dwellings.Parasitology Research 05/1999; 85(8):625-637. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Three experiments were conducted on cats to evaluate precocity and duration of the first blood meal of Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché). Percentage of engorged fleas was calculated for fleas held on cats for 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. Duration of first blood meal was also measured for individual fleas confined on cats. When fleas are free in the hair coat, 24.9% are engorged after 5 min and 97.2% are engorged after 1 h. Fleas confined to a vial on the cats fed significantly sooner; 60% of females were engorged within 5 min. The mean delay between deposition and biting for fleas, which began feeding within 15 min, was 24 s +/- 31 s for females and 23 s +/- 44 s for males. The mean duration of meals was 25 +/- 18 min for females and 11 +/- 8 min for males.Journal of Medical Entomology 08/2000; 37(4):634-6. · 1.86 Impact Factor