Article

Conduct disorder: A biopsychosocial review

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie (Impact Factor: 2.41). 10/2001; 46(7):609-16.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To review published works on the epidemiology, risk factors, protective factors, typologies, and genetic aspects of conduct disorder (CD).
Findings from refereed journal articles and current texts in the field are briefly summarized.
CD is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Factors strongly predictive of future delinquency include past offenses, antisocial peers, impoverished social ties, early substance use, male sex, and antisocial parents. Factors that moderately predict recidivism include early aggression, low socioeconomic status (SES), psychological variables such as risk taking and impulsivity, poor parent-child relationships, poor academic performance, early medical insult, and neuropsychological variables such as poor verbal IQ. Mildly predictive variables include other family characteristics such as large family size, family stress, discord, broken home, and abusive parenting, particularly neglect. Protective factors include individual factors such as skill competence (in social and other arenas), adult relationships, prosocial and proeducational values, and strong social programs and supports.
We know a great deal about psychosocial risk factors for CD. Some research into protective factors and genetic contributions exists but is in its early stages. Future work will increase our knowledge about subtypes, developmental pathways, and CD treatment.

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    • "It is increasingly recognized that in order to understand the complex phenomenon of antisocial behavior, interrelations between biological and social risk factors should be taken into account (Bassarath, 2001; Dodge and Pettit, 2003; Raine, 2002; Susman, 2006). A frequently hypothesized and examined biological risk factor for antisocial behavior, is a decreased level of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is increasingly recognized that in order to understand the complex phenomenon of antisocial behavior, interrelations between biological and social risk factors should be taken into account. In the current study, this biosocial approach was applied to examine the mediating role of deviant peers in longitudinal associations linking the level of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity to aggression and rule-breaking. Participants were 425 boys and girls from the general population, who were assessed yearly at ages 15, 16, and 17. As a measure of HPA axis activity, cortisol was assessed at awakening, 30, and 60min later (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). Participants, as well as their best friend, reported on their own aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, thereby allowing to assess bidirectional influences within friendships. Aggression was only predicted by a decreased cortisol level at awakening, and not by aggressive behavior of their friend. Decreased levels of cortisol at awakening predicted adolescents' rule-breaking, which subsequently predicted increased rule-breaking of their best friend. The latter was only found for adolescents who changed friends, as compared to adolescents with the same friend in every year. Gender differences were not found. These findings suggest that interrelations between biological and social risk factors are different for the development of aggression versus rule-breaking. Furthermore, decreased levels of HPA axis activity may represent a susceptibility to selecting deviant peers.
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    • "It is increasingly recognized that in order to understand the complex phenomenon of antisocial behavior, interrelations between biological and social risk factors should be taken into account (Bassarath, 2001; Dodge and Pettit, 2003; Raine, 2002; Susman, 2006). A frequently hypothesized and examined biological risk factor for antisocial behavior, is a decreased level of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity (e.g. "
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 01/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    • "Elevated levels of stress and maternal mental health difficulties can impair parenting and parent/child interactions (Appleyard et al., 2005; Campbell, Pierce, Moore, Marakovitz, & Newby, 1996; Chung, McCollum, Elo, Lee, & Culhane, 2004; Cummings & Davies, 1994; Downey & Coyne, 1990; Field, 1998; Goodman & Gotlib, 1999; Susman, Trickett, Iannotti, Hollenbeck, & Zahn-Waxler, 1985; Webster-Stratton, 1990), and are implicated in youth externalizing behaviors (Appleyard et al., 2005; Aikens, Coleman, & Barbarin, 2007; Bassarath, 2001; Campbell, 1995; Campbell et al., 1996; Civic & Holt, 2000; Goldberg et al., 1997; Gross, Shaw, Burwell, & Nagin, 2009; Marchand, Hock, & Widaman, 2002; Yatchmenoff, Koren, Friesen, Gordon, & Kinney, 1998). For example, parents living in economic stress, those with a history of anxiety disorders, and depressed parents are more likely to use harsh, punitive discipline (Chung, McCollum, Elo, Lee, & Culhane, 2004; Dodge, Pettit, & Bates, 1994; Johnson, Cohen, Kasen, & Brook, 2006; McLeod & Shanahan, 1993; McLoyd, Jayratne, Ceballo, & Borquez, 1994). "
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