Carbon emissions - The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol
ABSTRACT The third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto set the target of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by an average of 5.3% with respect to 1990 values by 2008-2012. One of the main objections to the protocol's ratification is that compliance would pose an unbearable economic burden on the countries involved. But we show here that this is not the case if costs apart from the direct costs of energy production are also considered. Costs are also incurred in rectifying damage to human health, material goods, agriculture and the environment related to greenhouse-gas emissions.
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ABSTRACT: Climate change and mitigation policies adopted by a locality indelibly impact urban form, landscape, and economy. The Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) has become a dominant movement organizing the localities to proactively address climate change. This study examines metropolitan area commitment to the CCP. Geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical techniques are used to analyze metros on dimensions of climate change risk, stress, and civic capacity. "Climate change risk" measures a metro area's coastal proximity, ecosystem sensitivity, and susceptibility to extreme weather events. "Climate change stress" summarizes transportation, energy, and production practices that adversely affect climate systems. "Civic capacity" estimates human capital and environmental concern variables that constitute a metro area's ability to commit to policy initiatives. Statistical results indicate that high stressor areas are significantly less likely to participate in the CCP campaign, and metros high in civic capacity are significantly more likely to commit to the CCP campaign.Urban Affairs Review 03/2008; 43(4):447-474. DOI:10.1177/1078087407304688 · 1.10 Impact Factor
Article: Ethics and Global Climate ChangeEthics 04/2004; 114(3):555-600. DOI:10.1086/382247 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The direct observation of the microstructural evolution and state-of-charge (SOC) distribution in active materials is crucial to understand the lithiation/delithiation mechanisms during electrochemical cycling of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Owing to their high spatial resolutions and capability to map chemical states by combining other spectroscopic techniques, microscopic techniques including X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy, Raman microscopy, transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) play significant roles in real time monitoring the dynamic changes in the LIB electrodes and materials. This paper reviews the recent progress of using in situ microscopic techniques to study LIB materials, including Si-, Sn-, Ge-, C- and metal oxides-based anode materials, and layered oxysulfide, metal fluorides, LiCoO2, LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, LiMn2O4, LiFePO4 cathode materials.Journal of Power Sources 12/2014; 270:475–486. DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.07.123 · 5.21 Impact Factor