Screening for problematic prescription opioid use.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75390, USA.
Clinical Journal of Pain (Impact Factor: 2.7). 10/2001; 17(3):220-8. DOI: 10.1097/00002508-200109000-00006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The proper medicinal use of opioids, in light of their notorious history and current relation to social ills, continues to be debated and remains unclear in several areas of medicine. This article will review several areas and points of controversy related to screening for potential problematic opioid behavior in chronic nonmalignant pain patients. Controversy over the prescription of opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain continues, despite the growing acceptance of this practice. Indeed, past research supports the beneficial use of opioids for noncancer pain. Unfortunately, traditional definitions of abuse and dependence, with their emphasis on tolerance and withdrawal, are inappropriate for chronic pain patients prescribed opioids. The component of traditional definitions of abuse and dependence that appears most applicable to chronic pain patients centers on the criterion that the patient continue to take the drug (in this case, the opioid) despite negative and harmful effects or despite any decrease in pain level. Although clinical observations exist about risk factors for opioid misuse in chronic pain patients, there is limited research. Further, the area of prescreening for problematic drug behavior is in its infancy. However, researchers have begun to delve into this challenging area and the application of rigorous empirical research will bring us closer to identifying those patients at risk so that their pain is managed without destructive outcomes in other areas of their life.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The growing social problem of drug abuse has increased the likelihood that anesthesiologists will find acute or chronic drug users among patients requiring anesthesia for elective or emergency surgery. We must therefore be aware of the effects drugs have on the organism and their possible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with anesthetic agents in order to prevent complications during surgery and postoperative recovery. Such knowledge is required for the management of abstinence syndrome or overdose, which pose the greatest potential dangers for the hospitalized drug addict.
    Revista espanola de anestesiologia y reanimacion 01/2011; 58(2):97-109. DOI:10.1016/S0034-9356(11)70008-1
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND.: Opioids are recognized as an integral part of the armamentarium in the management of cancer pain. There has been a growing awareness of the misuse of prescription opioids among cancer patients. More research is needed to detail risk factors and incidence for opioid misuse among cancer pain patients. METHODS.: We reviewed 522 patient charts that were seen in our Pain Center from January 1, 2009 to June 30, 2009 for risk stratification of opioid misuse with demographic and clinical factors utilizing the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-short form (SOAPP-SF). Group differences based on High (≥4) and Low (<4) SOAPP-SF scores were evaluated at initial visit, follow-up within a month and 6-9 months. RESULTS.: One hundred forty-nine of the 522 (29%) patients had a SOAPP-SF score of ≥4. The mean age for patients with high SOAPP-SF score (≥4) was 50 ± 14 vs 56 ± 14 for patients with low SOAPP-SF score (<4) (P < 0.0001). The pain scores were higher for patients with high SOAPP-SF score compared with patients with low SOAPP-SF score at consult (P < 0.0001). Morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD) was higher for patients with high SOAPP-SF score compared with patients with low SOAPP-SF score at consult (P = 0.0461). Fatigue, feeling of well-being, and poor appetite were higher among the high SOAPP-SF group at initial visit (P < 0.0001, <0.0001, <0.0149, respectively). The high SOAPP-SF score patients also had statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher anxiety and depression scores at all three time points. In the multivariate analysis, patients younger than 55 years have a higher odds of having a "high" SOAPP-SF score than patients 55 years and older {odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 2.76 (1.58, 4.81), P = 0.0003} adjusting for employment status, disease status, treatment status, usual pain score, and morphine equivalency at consult. Patients with higher usual pain score at consult have higher odds of a "high" SOAPP-SF score (OR [95% CI] = 1.34 [1.19, 1.51], P < 0.0001) adjusting for age, employment status, disease status, treatment status, and morphine equivalency at consult. CONCLUSION.: Patients classified by the SOAPP-SF in the current study as high risk tended to be younger, endorse more pain, have higher MEDD requirement, and endorse more symptoms of depression and anxiety. These findings are consistent with the literature on risk factors of opioid abuse in chronic pain patients which suggests that certain patient characteristics such as younger age, anxiety, and depression symptomatology are associated with greater risk for opioid misuse. However, a limitation of the current study is that other measures of opioid abuse were not available for validation and comparison with the SOAPP-SF.
    Pain Medicine 04/2013; 14(5). DOI:10.1111/pme.12100 · 2.24 Impact Factor