Bjorksten B, Sepp E, Julge K, Voor T, Mikelsaar M.. Allergy development and the intestinal microflora during the first year of life. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108: 516-520

University of Tartu, Dorpat, Tartu, Estonia
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 11.48). 10/2001; 108(4):516-20. DOI: 10.1067/mai.2001.118130
Source: PubMed


The intestinal microflora is a likely source for the induction of immune deviation in infancy.
The purpose of this study was to prospectively relate the intestinal microflora to allergy development in 2 countries differing with respect to the prevalence of atopic diseases.
Newborn infants were followed prospectively through the first 2 years of life in Estonia (n = 24) and Sweden (n = 20). By that age, 9 Estonian and 9 Swedish infants had developed atopic dermatitis and/or positive skin prick test results. Stool samples were obtained at 5 to 6 days and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and 13 groups of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms were cultivated through use of standard methods.
In comparison with healthy infants, babies who developed allergy were less often colonized with enterococci during the first month of life (72% vs 96%; P <.05) and with bifidobacteria during the first year of life (17% to 39% vs 42% to 69%; P <.05). Furthermore, allergic infants had higher counts of clostridia at 3 months (median value, 10.3 vs 7.2 log(10); P <.05). The prevalence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus was also higher at 6 months (61% vs 23%; P <.05), whereas the counts of Bacteroides were lower at 12 months (9.9 vs 10.6 log(10); P <.05).
Differences in the composition of the gut flora between infants who will and infants who will not develop allergy are demonstrable before the development of any clinical manifestations of atopy. Because the observations were made in 2 countries with different standards of living, we believe that our findings could indicate a role for the intestinal microflora in the development of and protection from allergy.

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Available from: Tiia Voor, Aug 18, 2014
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    • "However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Whether or not differences in the composition of the microbiota (particularly abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae ) precede the development of atopy, as suggested by other reports (Bjorksten et al., 2001; Kalliomaki et al., 2001a; Penders et al., 2013) is not addressed in the current study, as the first fecal sample was collected after the onset of CMA signs and symptoms. However, as we have recently reviewed, increasing evidence supports a role for the microbiota in sensitization to food allergens, where the use of antibiotics, anti-bacterial agents and disruptions in fecal-associated community structure correlate with an elevated risk of disease (Berni Canani et al., 2015). "
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    The ISME Journal 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/ismej.2015.151 · 9.30 Impact Factor
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    • "and Bacteroides spp. has been associated with food allergy and allergic sensitization [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. However, it is not known how the microbiota composition affects the mucosal immune response in food allergy. "
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    Clinical Immunology 10/2014; 154(2). DOI:10.1016/j.clim.2014.07.002 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    • "It is likely the intestinal microbial community structures of the two experimental groups differed as a result of differences in their respective environments and pre-weaning diets. Evidence in humans indicates that the neonatal intestinal microbial community regulates systemic immunity [14]. Moreover, pigs raised in environments with different levels of hygiene and intestinal microbial compositions exhibited different mucosal immunity characteristics [15]. "
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