Leukocyte elastase in murine and human non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
ABSTRACT Extracellular proteases play a crucial role in the invasive behavior of normal and transformed leukocytes. Thus far, however, most of the attention has been focused on members of the family of matrix metalloproteinases. In this work, we show that lymphoma cells can express leukocyte elastase (LE) and recruit the enzyme at their surface via ICAM-1. The expression of LE by lymphoma cells was augmented significantly by stimulation with IL-6 and IL-13, both of which also induced the expression of MMP-9. Although LE and IL-13 transcripts were detected in several non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, immunohistochemical analysis of lymphoma tissues also showed that LE was strongly expressed in infiltrating leukocytes. Given the spectrum of key molecules that can be cleaved by LE and that LE and MMP-9 are involved in the invasive behavior of normal or transformed leukocytes, our results raise the hypothesis that LE plays a crucial role in the multistep processes of inflammation and lymphoma metastasis.
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ABSTRACT: T helper 1 responses are typically proinflammatory, while Th2 responses have been considered regulatory. Interestingly, Th2 responses characterize a number of pulmonary diseases, many of which terminate in tissue remodeling and fibrosis. We developed a mouse model using Schistosoma mansoni eggs and cytokine-deficient mice to induce highly polarized Th1- or Th2-type inflammation in the lung. In this study, we examined the pathology and cytokine profiles in Th1- and Th2-polarized environments and used oligonucleotide microarray analysis to decipher the genes responsible for these effects. We further elaborated on the results using IL-10- and IL-13-deficient mice because these cytokines are believed to be the central regulators of Th2-associated pathology. We found that the Th1-polarized mice developed small granulomas with less fibrosis while expressing genes characteristic of tissue damage. Th2-polarized mice, in contrast, formed large granulomas with massive collagen deposition and up-regulated genes associated with wound healing, specifically, arginase, collagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of MMP. In addition, several members of the chitinase-like family were up-regulated in the lung following egg challenge. We also developed a method of defining the net collagen deposition using the expression profiles of several collagen, MMP, and tissue inhibitors of MMP genes. We found that Th1-polarized mice did not elaborate collagens or MMPs and therefore did not have a significant capacity for repair in this model. Thus, Th1-mediated inflammation is characterized by tissue damage, while Th2 directs wound healing and fibrosis.The Journal of Immunology 11/2003; 171(7):3655-67. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several membrane-bound molecules expressed at the surface of tumor cells have been shown to be released in a soluble form, thereby affecting cell-cell interactions by reduction of ligand densities. Moreover, since the binding domain of the soluble molecules often remains functional, proteolytic cleavage can also reduce the recognition of tumor cells by effector cells bearing the corresponding receptor. Proteolytic cleavage of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) at the surface of stromal cells, most notably at the surface of vascular endothelial cells, can also limit the recruitment of effector cells at tumor sites. It is noteworthy that, in most cases, the signals that regulate the expression of extracellular proteases are mediated by the same adhesion molecules than those that are targeted by the proteases, suggesting that there is an intimate relationship between extracellular proteases and cell surface adhesion molecules. In this review, we will discuss the functional relationship between CAMs and proteases and how this may lead to tumor evasion.Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2005; 10:1040-9. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury remains controversial, as it has been demonstrated that these cells display pro-toxicant and hepato-protective functions. This controversy may stem from the heterogeneity and/or plasticity of macrophages and the difficulty in distinguishing and differentially studying subpopulations of macrophages in the liver. In the present study, using flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence-labeled antibodies against specific cell surface macrophage markers, we were able to, for the first time, identify an APAP-induced macrophage (IM) population distinct from resident Kupffer cells. The data demonstrated that the IMs were derived from circulating monocytes that infiltrated the liver following APAP-induced liver injury. The IMs exhibited a phenotype consistent with that of alternatively activated macrophages and demonstrated the ability to phagocytize apoptotic cells and induce apoptosis of neutrophils. Furthermore, in the absence of the IMs, the resolution of hepatic damage following APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was delayed in CCR2(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. These findings likely contribute to the role of the IMs in the processes of tissue repair, including counteracting inflammation and promoting angiogenesis. The present study also demonstrated the ability of separating populations of macrophages and delineating distinct functions of each group in future studies of inflammatory disease in the liver and other tissues.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 09/2008; 84(6):1410-21. · 4.57 Impact Factor