Rho-kinase regulates myosin II activation in MDCK cells during recovery after ATP depletion

Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology (Impact Factor: 3.25). 12/2001; 281(5):F810-8.
Source: PubMed


Alterations in the actin cytoskeleton of renal tubular epithelial cells during periods of ischemic injury and recovery have important consequences for normal cell and kidney function. Myosin II has been demonstrated to be an important effector in organizing basal actin structures in some cell types. ATP depletion in vitro has been demonstrated to recapitulate alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in renal tubular epithelial cells observed during renal ischemia in vivo. We utilized this reversible cell culture model of ischemia to examine the correlation of the activation state and cellular distribution of myosin II with disruption of actin stress fibers in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells during ATP depletion and recovery from ATP depletion. We found that myosin II inactivation occurs rapidly and precedes dissociation of myosin II from actin stress fibers during ATP depletion. Myosin II activation temporally correlates with colocalization of myosin II to reorganizing stress fibers during recovery from ATP depletion. Furthermore, myosin activation and actin stress fiber formation were found to be Rho-associated Ser/Thr protein kinase dependent during recovery from ATP depletion.

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    • "This NM II-dependent regulatory mechanism may operate in neurite branching and angiogenic sprouting [48], where precise regulation of contractility and actin dynamics is critically important. Moreover, the depletion of cellular ATP induces actomyosin disassembly [49], which would result in an uncontrolled release of GEFs from NM II, accompanied by Rho GTPase activation. Hence, the NM II-dependent release of GEFs may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia by the Rac1-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species [50] and postischemic morphological changes [51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rho GTPases are critical for actin cytoskeletal regulation, and alterations in their activity may contribute to altered cytoskeletal organization that characterizes many pathological conditions, including ischemia. G protein activity is a function of the ratio of GTP-bound (active) to GDP-bound (inactive) protein, but the effect of altered energy metabolism on Rho protein activity has not been determined. We used antimycin A and substrate depletion to induce depletion of intracellular ATP and GTP in the kidney proximal tubule cell line LLC-PK10 and measured the activity of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 with GTPase effector binding domains fused to glutathione S-transferase. RhoA activity decreased in parallel with the concentration of ATP and GTP during depletion, so that by 60 min there was no detectable RhoA-GTP, and recovered rapidly when cells were returned to normal culture conditions. Dissociation of the membrane-actin linker ezrin, a target of RhoA signaling, from the cytoskeletal fraction paralleled the decrease in RhoA activity and was augmented by treatment with the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. The activity of Cdc42 did not decrease significantly during depletion or recovery. Rac1 activity decreased moderately to a minimum at 30 min of depletion but then increased from 30 to 90 min of depletion, even as ATP and GTP levels continued to fall. Our data are consistent with a principal role for RhoA in cytoskeletal reorganization during ischemia and demonstrate that the activity of Rho GTPases can be maintained even at low GTP concentrations.
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