NG2 immunoreactivity on human brain endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT In this study, we evaluated the expression of NG2 on human brain endothelial cells derived from temporal lobe tissue resected as a treatment for intractable epilepsy. Using dissociated cell cultures, we found expression of NG2 on both proliferating and non-proliferating cells, at the mRNA level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses, and at the protein level by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. We further observed that human cerebral microvessels in nonmalignant CNS tissues immunoreacted with NG2. NG2 protein was detected using both a rabbit antibody raised against the rodent NG2 and a monoclonal antibody raised against the human NG2 (9.2.27). Our findings further define the range of resident cells of the CNS that can express NG2 and indicate that expression of NG2 by endothelial cells is not restricted to proliferating CNS endothelial cells or to endothelial cells found in brain tumors.
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ABSTRACT: Cells that express the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (NG2 glia) are widespread in the adult human cerebral cortex and white matter and represent 10-15% of non-neuronal cells. The morphology and distribution of NG2 glia are similar to, but distinct from, both microglia and astrocytes. They are present as early as 17 weeks gestation and persist throughout life. NG2 glia can be detected in a variety of human central nervous system (CNS) diseases, of which multiple sclerosis is the best studied. NG2 glia show morphological changes in the presence of pathology and can show expression of the Ki-67 proliferation antigen. The antigenic profile and morphology of NG2 glia in human tissues are consistent with an oligodendrocyte progenitor function that has been well established in rodent models. Most antibodies to NG2 do not stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Advances in our understanding of NG2 glia in human tissues will require the development of more robust markers for their detection in routinely processed human specimens.Neuron Glia Biology 09/2009; 5(3-4):35-44. · 1.34 Impact Factor
Article: Methods in studying ECM degradation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Almost all tissues in our body contain specific cells associated with the tissue itself, and an extracellular matrix (ECM) that consists of a variety of proteins of which the bulk is formed by different types of collagens, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. The ECM plays a pivotal role in numerous processes not only related to the mechanical properties of a tissue, but also in modulating cellular activity. For a proper functioning of a tissue remodeling of the ECM is essential. Some connective tissues are characterized by a very rapid turnover (e.g. periodontal ligament) whereas others hardly show signs of turnover (e.g. cartilage). In all situations degradation of the ECM constituents occur. Under certain conditions, especially during a pathological situation, a high level of degradation may take place. In other situations matrix synthesis and deposition outstrips breakdown, leading to a fibrosis. In order to obtain information on the level of degradation of the different ECM components, various methods have been employed. A number of these methods will be discussed in this article.Methods 06/2008; 45(1):86-92. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Approximately two decades ago, it became evident that the developing and adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contained a population of neural stem cells (NSCs). These immature, undifferentiated, multipotent cells could be isolated, expanded, and used as cellular vectors for the treatment of neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases. Their potential as therapeutic agents in a wide range of CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders is beginning to be understood. NSCs may give rise to more committed progenitors, such as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), that may also be used as reparative cells. As the “repair” mechanisms by which NSCs act begin to be better elucidated, new therapies may emerge.10/2007: pages 371-419;