Significance of lymphoscintigraphic mapping with Tc-99m human serum albumin and tin colloid in sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer is considered in order to spare node-negative patients from axillary lymph node dissection. To assess the clinical significance of lymphoscintigraphic mapping in SLNB, we analyzed the lymphatic drain to the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in terms of the pattern and direction of the hot spot. Twenty-three breast cancer patients were enrolled for SLNB. Before surgery, lymphoscintigraphic mapping of SLN was performed using Tc-99m human serum albumin (HSA) and tin colloids, and the hot spot was marked. The Tc-99m HSA and tin colloids were subcutaneously injected above the tumor and peritumor sites, respectively, and lymphoscintigraphic scanning was monitored every 5 to 10 min, for up to 2 h after injection. The SLN was identified using a combination of a blue dye, indigocalmine, and a gamma probe during surgery. The hot spot pattern and direction of the lymphatic drains were evaluated in 21 of 23 cases. Two cases did not have a hot spot. Single, double, and multiple hot spots were observed in 12 cases (52.1%), 8 cases (34.7%), and 1 case (4.3%), respectively. The positions of the hot spots were: axillary (n=17, 80.9%), axillary and sternal (n=3, 14.2%), and phrenic (n=1, 4.7%). The sensitivity and specificity rates in SLNB were 66.6% and 100%, respectively, and the overall predictive rate was 85.7%. Lymphoscintigraphy produced false negatives in three cases (33.3%), including one on the phrenic side. Lymphoscintigraphic mapping with Tc-99m HSA and tin colloids is useful for determining the SLN, and avoiding a false negative. The pattern and direction of the lymphatic drain to the SLN in scintigraphy need to be considered for the elimination of axillary lymph node dissection in node-negative patients with breast cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Masahisa Onoguchi[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lymphoscintigraphy is an effective method for detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). However, the rate and degree of SLN detection is not uniform. We quantified SLNs detected with lymphoscintigraphy, and investigated correlations with factors that may influence detection. We then attempted to predict SLN metastasis from lymph node counts, comparing the predictions to subsequent biopsy results. We assessed lymph node counts in 100 breast cancer patients in whom a single SLN was detected with a fixed lymphoscintigraphy procedure. We examined correlations between the counts and factors known to influence lymphoscintigraphic SLN detection (age, body mass index, tumor size, and presence or absence of metastasis), and determined reference values (lymph node counts of 10.0, 19.4 and 53.0) which were used to predict SLN metastasis in 100 subsequent patients. The predictions were then compared with the SLN biopsy findings. SLN counts correlated strongly with the presence or absence of metastasis, with metastasis-positive lymph nodes showing significantly lower counts than negative nodes (p < 0.001). Prediction of SLN metastasis achieved a 100% positive predictive value at a reference value of 10.0, and a 100% negative predictive value at a reference value of 53.0. At a reference value of 19.4, the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 77.8, 73.2, and 74.0%, respectively. The SLN counts detected with lymphoscintigraphy were significantly lower in metastasis-positive lymph nodes than in metastasis-negative lymph nodes. This suggests that prediction of SLN metastasis in breast cancer is possible using lymphoscintigraphy.Annals of Nuclear Medicine 12/2010; 25(3):221-6. · 1.41 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Technetium-99m human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical required in nuclear medicine studies. However, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains a major safety concern. Autopreparation of serum component acquired from patient provides a "personal-exclusive" source for radiolabeling. This paper is to evaluate the practicality of on-site elusion and subsequent radiolabeling efficacy for serum albumin. Results showed that the autologous elute contained more albumin fraction than serum without extraction procedure. Good radiochemical purity and stability were demonstrated after radiolabeling. Biodistribution study showed that labeled albumin accumulated immediately in the lung, liver, and kidney. It was cleared steadily and excreted in the urine. The biologic half-life was defined, and all samples passed the pyrogenicity and sterility tests. In conclusion, autoalbumin could be extracted and radiolabeled properly in a nuclear medicine setting. Moreover, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection associated with nonautologous, multisource (99m)Tc-HSA agents can be reduced.BioMed Research International 01/2011; 2011:413802. · 2.88 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In sentinel node surgery for breast cancer, procedural accuracy is assessed by calculating the false-negative rate. It is important to measure this since there are potential adverse outcomes from missing node metastases. We performed a meta-analysis of published data to assess which method has achieved the lowest false-negative rate. We found 3,588 articles concerning sentinel nodes and breast cancer published from 1993 through mid-2011; 183 articles met our inclusion criteria. The studies described in these 183 articles included a total of 9,306 patients. We grouped the studies by injection material and injection location. The false-negative rates were analyzed according to these groupings and also by the year in which the articles were published. There was significant variation related to injection material. The use of blue dye alone was associated with the highest false-negative rate. Inclusion of a radioactive tracer along with blue dye resulted in a significantly lower false-negative rate. Although there were variations in the false-negative rate according to injection location, none were significant. The use of blue dye should be accompanied by a radioactive tracer to achieve a significantly lower false-negative rate. Location of injection did not have a significant impact on the false-negative rate. Given the limitations of acquiring appropriate data, the false-negative rate should not be used as a metric for training or quality control.World Journal of Surgery 05/2012; 36(9):2239-51. · 2.23 Impact Factor