NCX4016 (NO-Aspirin) has multiple inhibitory effects in LPS-stimulated human monocytes.

Department of Biomedical and Surgical Sciences, University of Verona, Medicina Interna C, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Piazzale L.A. Scuro, 10, 37134 Verona, Italy.
British Journal of Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 5.07). 11/2001; 134(4):905-11. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0704326
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT NCX4016 (2 acetoxy-benzoate 2-(2-nitroxymethyl)-phenyl ester, NicOx S.A., France) is an anti-thrombotic agent, chemically related to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and able to release NO. We tested the effects of NCX4016 and ASA on the release of the thromboxane (TX) A(2) metabolite TXB(2), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), expression and activity of tissue factor (TF) in stimulated, adherent human monocytes. Both ASA and NCX4016 1 - 1000 micromol l(-1) dose-dependently reduced TXB(2) concentration, measured by RIA in the supernatant of 10 microg ml(-1) LPS-stimulated cells. NCX4016 activity was comparable to that of equimolar ASA when incubation lasted 6 h (NCX4016 30 micromol l(-1): -86.0+/-10.1%, NCX4016 300 micromol l(-1): -92.2+/-9.0%, ASA 30 micromol l(-1): -92.3+/-7.5%, ASA 300 micromol l(-1): -97.3+/-1.0%, n=6, M+/-s.d.). Most of the activity of NCX4016 up to 100 micromol l(-1) was prevented by 10 micromol l(-1) ODQ, inhibitor of cyclic GMP. NCX4016 100 - 300 micromol l(-1) reduced TNF-alpha (NCX4016 300 micromol l(-1)=-77.2+/-19.9%, n=6) and IL-6 (NCX4016 300 micromol l(-1): -61.9+/-15.2%, n=6) in LPS stimulated monocytes while ASA had no significant effects. TF activity (NCX4016 300 micromol l(-1): 53.7+/-39.9%, n=4) and immunoreactive TF (NCX4016 300 micromol l(-1): -93.9+/-7.9%, n=7), measured in the supernatant of stimulated cells, were also dose-dependently inhibited by NCX4016 but not by ASA. The present results indicate that NCX4016 inhibits TXA(2) generation as well as cytokine release and TF in human monocytes partly via NO-dependent mechanisms. NCX4016 may have a favourable profile of activities in the clinical setting of athero-thrombosis.

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    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2006; 62:145-154. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) prevents thromboembolic events by inhibiting platelet function through blocking of cyclooxygenase type 1 (COX-1). A nitroderivate of ASA, 2-(acetyloxy)benzoic acid 3-(nitrooxymethyl)-phenyl ester (NCX 4016) was synthesized, which additionally acts through nitric oxide release. In various in vitro and animal studies NCX 4016 exhibited antithrombotic and anti-platelet properties. We used the standardized model of endotoxin infusion into human volunteers to compare the effects of NCX 4016 and ASA on platelet function and TF-induced coagulation activation. The trial consisted of two parts. In the first part, 10 healthy male volunteers were included in a randomized, open cross-over trial to find a NCX formulation with optimal tolerability and pharmacokinetic data were obtained. The second part was a randomized, double blind placebo controlled clinical trial consisting of 30 healthy male volunteers in three parallel groups (n = 10 per group). Volunteers received either NCX 4016 (800 mg b.i.d.), ASA (425 mg b.i.d.) or placebo for 7 days, before infusion of 2 ng/kg endotoxin on day 8. ASA attenuated the endotoxin-induced platelet plug formation (measured by PFA-100) significantly better than NCX 4016 and placebo (p < 0.004), while there was no difference in soluble P-selectin or VWF-levels. Urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) levels were significantly lower in the ASA and NCX 4016 groups as compared to placebo (p < 0.05). Neither ASA nor NCX 4016 significantly changed prothrombin fragment(1 + 2), D-Dimer or tissue factor (TF)-mRNA levels. In summary, NCX 4016 had no effect on VWF release, platelet activation as measured by soluble P-selectin or TF gene expression. NCX 4016, at the dose tested, unlike ASA, had no effect on platelet collagen/epinephrine induced plug formation under high shear rates.
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