Selective angiotensin II receptor antagonism reduces insulin resistance in obese Zucker rats.
ABSTRACT Effects of oral administration of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist (selective AT(1)-subtype) irbesartan on glucose tolerance and insulin action on skeletal-muscle glucose transport were assessed in the insulin-resistant obese Zucker rat. In the acute study, obese rats received either vehicle (water) or irbesartan 1 hour before the experiment. Although irbesartan had no effect on glucose transport (2-deoxyglucose uptake) in the epitrochlearis muscle, which consists mainly of type IIb fibers, acute angiotensin II receptor antagonism led to a dose-dependent increase in insulin action in the predominantly type I soleus muscle. Irbesartan at 25 and 50 mg/kg induced significant increases (41% and 50%, respectively; P<0.05) in insulin-mediated glucose transport. Moreover, these acute irbesartan-induced improvements in soleus-muscle glucose transport were associated with enhancements in whole-body insulin sensitivity (r=-0.732; P<0.05), as assessed during an oral glucose tolerance test. After chronic administration of irbesartan (21 days at 50 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), glucose tolerance was enhanced further, and insulin-mediated glucose transport was significantly elevated in both epitrochlearis (32%) and soleus (73%) muscle. Chronic angiotensin II receptor antagonism was associated with significant increases in glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) protein expression in soleus (22%) and plantaris (20%) muscle and myocardium (15%). Chronic irbesartan-induced increases in whole-body insulin sensitivity were associated with increased insulin-mediated glucose transport in both epitrochlearis (r=-0.677; P<0.05) and soleus (r=-0.892; P<0.05) muscle. In summary, angiotensin II receptor (AT(1)-subtype) antagonism, either acutely or chronically, improves glucose tolerance, at least in part because of an enhancement in skeletal-muscle glucose transport, and the effect of chronic angiotensin II receptor antagonism on type I skeletal-muscle glucose uptake is associated with an increase in GLUT-4 protein expression.
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ABSTRACT: The influence of losartan on the hypoglycemic effect of glimepiride was studied in normal and diabetic rats. Losartan and glimepiride were studied at a dose of 4.5 and 0.09 mg/kg and in normal and diabetic rats, respectively. The blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 hours and analyzed for glucose levels using a glucometer. Glimepiride exhibited a maximum reduction of blood glucose levels at the 4th hour in normal and diabetic rats. The maximum hypoglycemic effect was observed at the 6th hour in normal rats treated with losartan. In normal rats, losartan did not have any significant effect on the hypoglycemic activity of glimepiride in either the single- or multiple-dose interaction study. In the case of diabetic rats, losartan did not have any significant effect on the hypoglycemic activity of glimepiride in the single-dose interaction study, but a significant change was observed in the multiple-dose study of diabetic rats. Hence, the interaction was found to be pharmacodynamic. The study indicates that chronic losartan pretreatment elevates the hypoglycemic effect of glimepiride by a possible rise in insulin sensitivity and improving insulin homeostasis or may be due to the inhibition of CYP2C9. The study also suggests that caution may be recommended concerning combined use of losartan and an oral hypoglycemic agent, glimepiride.Therapeutic advances in endocrinology and metabolism 10/2013; 4(5):133-8.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is a worldwide disease that is accompanied by several metabolic abnormalities such as hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The accelerated adipose tissue growth and fat cell hypertrophy during the onset of obesity precedes adipocyte dysfunction. One of the features of adipocyte dysfunction is dysregulated adipokine secretion, which leads to an imbalance of pro-inflammatory, pro-atherogenic versus anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing adipokines. The production of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components by adipocytes is exacerbated during obesity, contributing to the systemic RAS and its consequences. Increased adipose tissue RAS has been described in various models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) including fructose and high-fat feeding. Up-regulation of the adipose RAS by DIO promotes inflammation, lipogenesis and reactive oxygen species generation and impairs insulin signaling, all of which worsen the adipose environment. Consequently, the increase of circulating RAS, for which adipose tissue is partially responsible, represents a link between hypertension, insulin resistance in diabetes and inflammation during obesity. However, other nutrients and food components such as soy protein attenuate adipose RAS, decrease adiposity, and improve adipocyte functionality. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms by which adipose RAS modulates systemic RAS and how it is enhanced in obesity, which will explain the simultaneous development of metabolic syndrome alterations. Finally, dietary interventions that prevent obesity and adipocyte dysfunction will maintain normal RAS concentrations and effects, thus preventing metabolic diseases that are associated with RAS enhancement.The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 10/2013; · 4.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is predicted to increase dramatically over the coming years and the clinical implications and healthcare costs from this disease are overwhelming. In many cases, this pathological condition is linked to a cluster of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, systemic hypertension and dyslipidaemia, defined as the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance has been proposed as the key mediator of all of these features and contributes to the associated high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the molecular mechanisms behind insulin resistance are not completely understood, a negative cross-talk between AngII (angiotensin II) and the insulin signalling pathway has been the focus of great interest in the last decade. Indeed, substantial evidence has shown that anti-hypertensive drugs that block the RAS (renin-angiotensin system) may also act to prevent diabetes. Despite its long history, new components within the RAS continue to be discovered. Among them, Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] has gained special attention as a counter-regulatory hormone opposing many of the AngII-related deleterious effects. Specifically, we and others have demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) improves the action of insulin and opposes the negative effect that AngII exerts at this level. In the present review, we provide evidence showing that insulin and Ang-(1-7) share a common intracellular signalling pathway. We also address the molecular mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7) on AngII-mediated insulin resistance. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic approaches leading to modulation of the ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis as a very attractive strategy in the therapy of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes-associated diseases.Clinical Science 05/2014; 126(9):613-30. · 4.86 Impact Factor