Selective angiotensin II receptor antagonism reduces insulin resistance in obese Zucker rats.
ABSTRACT Effects of oral administration of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist (selective AT(1)-subtype) irbesartan on glucose tolerance and insulin action on skeletal-muscle glucose transport were assessed in the insulin-resistant obese Zucker rat. In the acute study, obese rats received either vehicle (water) or irbesartan 1 hour before the experiment. Although irbesartan had no effect on glucose transport (2-deoxyglucose uptake) in the epitrochlearis muscle, which consists mainly of type IIb fibers, acute angiotensin II receptor antagonism led to a dose-dependent increase in insulin action in the predominantly type I soleus muscle. Irbesartan at 25 and 50 mg/kg induced significant increases (41% and 50%, respectively; P<0.05) in insulin-mediated glucose transport. Moreover, these acute irbesartan-induced improvements in soleus-muscle glucose transport were associated with enhancements in whole-body insulin sensitivity (r=-0.732; P<0.05), as assessed during an oral glucose tolerance test. After chronic administration of irbesartan (21 days at 50 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), glucose tolerance was enhanced further, and insulin-mediated glucose transport was significantly elevated in both epitrochlearis (32%) and soleus (73%) muscle. Chronic angiotensin II receptor antagonism was associated with significant increases in glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) protein expression in soleus (22%) and plantaris (20%) muscle and myocardium (15%). Chronic irbesartan-induced increases in whole-body insulin sensitivity were associated with increased insulin-mediated glucose transport in both epitrochlearis (r=-0.677; P<0.05) and soleus (r=-0.892; P<0.05) muscle. In summary, angiotensin II receptor (AT(1)-subtype) antagonism, either acutely or chronically, improves glucose tolerance, at least in part because of an enhancement in skeletal-muscle glucose transport, and the effect of chronic angiotensin II receptor antagonism on type I skeletal-muscle glucose uptake is associated with an increase in GLUT-4 protein expression.
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ABSTRACT: In the present review, the merit of ginseng in the improvement of insulin resistance has been introduced. Using the results in previous studies, we found that ginseng or ginsenoside Rh2 has the ability to reduce glucose-insulin index in rats with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was induced by feeding of fructose-rich chow in rats. Insulin resistance was characterized by regular methods. Effectiveness of ginseng powder or extract Rh2 was identified in this animal model. Also, the application of ginseng for handling of diabetic disorders in China has been discussed. According to Chinese traditional medicine, ginseng is merit in the treatment of diabetic disorders named as Shiaw-Ker in Chinese. Therefore, it is no doubt that ginseng is helpful in the control of diabetic disorders either prevention or the treatment. Otherwise, the potential effect of ginseng on nervous functions shall be investigated in the future.Journal of ginseng research 01/2010; 34(3). · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to exert various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) binding activities and insulin-sensitizing effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different ARBs with new-onset diabetes mellitus.Cardiovascular Diabetology 05/2014; 13(1):91. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro- and macrovascular disease. Moreover, increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance. As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical. However, the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism. Indeed, angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism. However, some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis. On the other hand, diuretics and β-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism. Of note, carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of the β-blockers class, being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis. The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may, to an extent, compromise their cardiovascular protective role. As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment, especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes.World journal of cardiology. 07/2014; 6(7):517-30.