Selective angiotensin II receptor antagonism reduces insulin resistance in obese Zucker rats.
ABSTRACT Effects of oral administration of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist (selective AT(1)-subtype) irbesartan on glucose tolerance and insulin action on skeletal-muscle glucose transport were assessed in the insulin-resistant obese Zucker rat. In the acute study, obese rats received either vehicle (water) or irbesartan 1 hour before the experiment. Although irbesartan had no effect on glucose transport (2-deoxyglucose uptake) in the epitrochlearis muscle, which consists mainly of type IIb fibers, acute angiotensin II receptor antagonism led to a dose-dependent increase in insulin action in the predominantly type I soleus muscle. Irbesartan at 25 and 50 mg/kg induced significant increases (41% and 50%, respectively; P<0.05) in insulin-mediated glucose transport. Moreover, these acute irbesartan-induced improvements in soleus-muscle glucose transport were associated with enhancements in whole-body insulin sensitivity (r=-0.732; P<0.05), as assessed during an oral glucose tolerance test. After chronic administration of irbesartan (21 days at 50 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), glucose tolerance was enhanced further, and insulin-mediated glucose transport was significantly elevated in both epitrochlearis (32%) and soleus (73%) muscle. Chronic angiotensin II receptor antagonism was associated with significant increases in glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) protein expression in soleus (22%) and plantaris (20%) muscle and myocardium (15%). Chronic irbesartan-induced increases in whole-body insulin sensitivity were associated with increased insulin-mediated glucose transport in both epitrochlearis (r=-0.677; P<0.05) and soleus (r=-0.892; P<0.05) muscle. In summary, angiotensin II receptor (AT(1)-subtype) antagonism, either acutely or chronically, improves glucose tolerance, at least in part because of an enhancement in skeletal-muscle glucose transport, and the effect of chronic angiotensin II receptor antagonism on type I skeletal-muscle glucose uptake is associated with an increase in GLUT-4 protein expression.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is predicted to increase dramatically over the coming years and the clinical implications and healthcare costs from this disease are overwhelming. In many cases, this pathological condition is linked to a cluster of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, systemic hypertension and dyslipidaemia, defined as the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance has been proposed as the key mediator of all of these features and contributes to the associated high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the molecular mechanisms behind insulin resistance are not completely understood, a negative cross-talk between AngII (angiotensin II) and the insulin signalling pathway has been the focus of great interest in the last decade. Indeed, substantial evidence has shown that anti-hypertensive drugs that block the RAS (renin-angiotensin system) may also act to prevent diabetes. Despite its long history, new components within the RAS continue to be discovered. Among them, Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] has gained special attention as a counter-regulatory hormone opposing many of the AngII-related deleterious effects. Specifically, we and others have demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) improves the action of insulin and opposes the negative effect that AngII exerts at this level. In the present review, we provide evidence showing that insulin and Ang-(1-7) share a common intracellular signalling pathway. We also address the molecular mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7) on AngII-mediated insulin resistance. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic approaches leading to modulation of the ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis as a very attractive strategy in the therapy of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes-associated diseases.Clinical Science 05/2014; 126(9):613-30. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to exert various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) binding activities and insulin-sensitizing effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different ARBs with new-onset diabetes mellitus.Cardiovascular Diabetology 05/2014; 13(1):91. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although obesity has been associated with metabolic and cardiac disturbances, the carrier mechanisms for these responses are poorly understood. This study analyzed whether angiotensin II blockade attenuates metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in rats with diet-induced obesity. Wistar-Kyoto (n = 40) rats were subjected to control (C; 3.2 kcal/g) and hypercaloric diets (OB; 4.6 kcal/g) for 30 weeks. Subsequently, rats were distributed to four groups: C, CL, OB, and OBL. L groups received Losartan (30 mg/kg/day) for five weeks. After this period we performed in vivo glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests, and measured triacylglycerol, insulin, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE), and leptin levels. Cardiovascular analyzes included systolic blood pressure (SBP), echocardiography, myocardial morphometric study, myosin heavy chain composition, and measurements of myocardial protein levels of angiotensin, extracellular signal-regulated (ERK1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK), insulin receptor subunit β (βIR), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) by Western Blot. Glucose metabolism, insulin, lipid, and ACE activity disorders observed with obesity were minimized by Losartan. Moreover, obesity was associated with increased SBP, myocardial hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and improved systolic performance; these effects were also minimized with Losartan. On a molecular level, OB exhibited higher ERK, Tyr-phosphorylated βIR, and PI3K expression, and reduced myocardial angiotensin and JNK expression. ERK and JNK expression were regulated in the presence of Losartan, while angiotensin, Tyr-βRI, total and Tyr-phosphorylated PI3K expression were elevated in the OBL group. Angiotensin II blockade with Losartan attenuates obesity-induced metabolic and cardiovascular changes.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86447. · 3.53 Impact Factor