Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights.
ABSTRACT Sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance measures were obtained in five astronauts before, during, and after 16-day or 10-day space missions. In space, scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24 h. Light-dark cycles were highly variable on the flight deck, and daytime illuminances in other compartments of the spacecraft were very low (5.0-79.4 lx). In space, the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm was reduced and the circadian rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared misaligned relative to the imposed non-24-h sleep-wake schedule. Neurobehavioral performance decrements were observed. Sleep duration, assessed by questionnaires and actigraphy, was only approximately 6.5 h/day. Subjective sleep quality diminished. Polysomnography revealed more wakefulness and less slow-wave sleep during the final third of sleep episodes. Administration of melatonin (0.3 mg) on alternate nights did not improve sleep. After return to earth, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was markedly increased. Crewmembers on these flights experienced circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and postflight changes in REM sleep.
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to determine the separate and combined effects of hypoxia and inactivity/unloading on sleep architecture during a 10-day period of confinement.Arbeitsphysiologie 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00421-014-2909-7 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spaceflights "environment" negatively affects sleep and its functions. Among the different causes promoting sleep alterations, such as circadian rhythms disruption and microgravity, stress is of great interest also for earth-based sleep medicine. This study aims to evaluate the relationships between stress related to social/environmental confinement and sleep in six healthy volunteers involved in the simulation of human flight to Mars (MARS500). Volunteers were sealed in a spaceship simulator for 105days and studied at 5 specific time-points of the simulation period. Sleep EEG, urinary cortisol (24h preceding sleep EEG recording) and subjectively perceived stress levels were collected. Cognitive abilities and emotional state were evaluated before and after the simulation. Sleep EEG parameters in the time (latency, duration) and frequency (power and hemispheric lateralization) domains were evaluated. Neither cognitive and emotional functions alterations nor abnormal stress levels were found. Higher cortisol levels were associated to: i) decrease of sleep duration, increase of arousals, and shortening of REM latency; ii) reduction of delta power and enhancement of sigma and beta in NREM N3; iii) left lateralization of delta activity (NREM and REM) and right lateralization of beta activity (NREM). Stressful conditions, even with cortisol fluctuations in the normal range, alter sleep structure and sleep EEG spectral content, mirroring pathological conditions such as primary insomnia or insomnia associated to depression. Correlations between cortisol fluctuations and sleep changes suggest a covert risk for developing allostatic load, and thus the need to develop ad-hoc countermeasures for preventing sleep alterations in long lasting manned space missions.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.04.008 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Altered gravity load induced by spaceflight (microgravity) and centrifugation (hypergravity) is associated with changes in circadian, metabolic, and reproductive systems. Exposure to 2-g hypergravity (HG) during pregnancy and lactation decreased rate of mammary metabolic activity and increased pup mortality. We hypothesize HG disrupted maternal homeorhetic responses to pregnancy and lactation are due to changes in maternal metabolism, hormone concentrations, and maternal behavior related to gravity induced alterations in circadian clocks. Effect of HG exposure on mammary, liver and adipose tissue metabolism, plasma hormones and maternal behavior were analyzed in rat dams from mid-pregnancy (Gestational day [G]11) through early lactation (Postnatal day [P]3); comparisons were made across five time-points: G20, G21, P0 (labor and delivery), P1 and P3. Blood, mammary, liver, and adipose tissue were collected for analyzing plasma hormones, glucose oxidation to CO(2) and incorporation into lipids, or gene expression. Maternal behavioral phenotyping was conducted using time-lapse videographic analyses. Dam and fetal-pup body mass were significantly reduced in HG in all age groups. HG did not affect labor and delivery; however, HG pups experienced a greater rate of mortality. PRL, corticosterone, and insulin levels and receptor genes were altered by HG. Mammary, liver and adipose tissue metabolism and expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism were altered by HG exposure. Exposure to HG significantly changed expression of core clock genes in mammary and liver and circadian rhythms of maternal behavior. Gravity load alterations in dam's circadian system may have impacted homeorhetic adaptations needed for a successful lactation.06/2012; 1(6):570-81. DOI:10.1242/bio.2012687