"Trauma was proposed as a possible initiating stimulus for chronic interactions of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system in spondyloarthritis (SpA) and AS [14, 48, 62]. Tissue microinjury could locally activate the innate immune system by release of damage-associated molecules, cytokines, or other mediators [44, 45, 62]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not fully explained by inflammatory processes. Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and course of disease features indicate additional host-related risk processes and predispositions. Collectively, the pattern of predisposition to onset in adolescent and young adult ages, male preponderance, and widely varied severity of AS is unique among rheumatic diseases. However, this pattern could reflect biomechanical and structural differences between the sexes, naturally occurring musculoskeletal changes over life cycles, and a population polymorphism. During juvenile development, the body is more flexible and weaker than during adolescent maturation and young adulthood, when strengthening and stiffening considerably increase. During middle and later ages, the musculoskeletal system again weakens. The novel concept of an innate axial myofascial hypertonicity reflects basic mechanobiological principles in human function, tissue reactivity, and pathology. However, these processes have been little studied and require critical testing. The proposed physical mechanisms likely interact with recognized immunobiological pathways. The structural biomechanical processes and tissue reactions might possibly precede initiation of other AS-related pathways. Research in the combined structural mechanobiology and immunobiology processes promises to improve understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of AS than prevailing concepts. The combined processes might better explain characteristic enthesopathic and inflammatory processes in AS.
"Peripheral inflammatory enthesitis is more frequently found in the weight-bearing lower limbs in both adults and children [1,12-14]. The reason for this is not clear, although recent studies have suggested an association between mechanical factors and inflammatory disease [66,67]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of enthesitis (insertional inflammation) in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is difficult to establish clinically and may influence classification and treatment of the disease. We used ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler (CD) imaging to detect enthesitis at the small and deep-seated proximal insertion of the gluteus medius fascia on the posterior iliac crest where clinical diagnosis is difficult. The findings in JIA patients were compared with those obtained in healthy controls and with the patients' MRI results.
Seventy-six proximal gluteus medius insertions were studied clinically (tenderness to palpation of the posterior iliac crest) and by US and CD (echogenicity, thickness, hyperemia) in 38 patients with JIA and in 38 healthy controls, respectively (median age 13 years, range 7-18 years). In addition, an additional MRI examination of the sacroiliac joints and iliac crests was performed in all patients.
In patients with focal, palpable tenderness, US detected decreased echogenicity of the entheses in 53% of the iliac crests (bilateral in 37% and unilateral in 32%). US also revealed significantly thicker entheses in JIA patients compared to healthy controls (p < 0.003 left side, p < 0.001 right side). There was no significant difference in thickness between the left and right sides in individual subjects. Hyperemia was detected by CD in 37% (28/76) of the iliac crests and by contrast-enhanced MRI in 12% (6/50).
According to US, the gluteus medius insertion was thicker in JIA patients than in controls, and it was hypoechoic (enthesitis) in about half of the patients. These findings may represent chronic, inactive disease in some of the patients, because there was only limited Doppler flow and MRI contrast enhancement. The present study indicates that US can be useful as an adjunct to clinical examination for improved assessment of enthesitis in JIA. This may influence disease classification, ambition to treat, and choice of treatment regimen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the role of biomechanical factors and HLA-B27 in plantar fasciitis.
T1-weighted and T2 spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (fat suppressed) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences of the plantar fascia insertion and adjacent bone were performed on 28 patients with plantar fasciitis; 17 had spondylarthropathy (SpA)-associated disease, and 11 had mechanically induced disease. The relationship between the degree of bone edema, scored on a semiquantitative scale (from absent to severe), and the patient's HLA-B27 status was determined.
On MRI, edema within the soft tissue at the enthesis was evident in both groups. Bone edema in the adjacent calcaneum was evident in 64.7% (11 of 17) of patients with SpA and in 45% (5 of 11) of those with mechanically induced disease (P = 0.441). HLA-B27 was identified in 9 (53%) of the patients with SpA but in none (0%) of those with mechanically induced disease. All 6 of the SpA patients with extensive bone edema but none of the 5 SpA patients with mild bone edema were HLA-B27 positive (P = 0.002).
The association of HLA-B27 with bone pathology in early enthesitis may have implications for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SpA.
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