Article

Transcriptional and spatiotemporal regulation of prolactin receptor mRNA and cooperativity with progesterone receptor function during ductal branch growth in the mammary gland.

Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology Section, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, NIH, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1402, USA.
Developmental Dynamics (Impact Factor: 2.59). 11/2001; 222(2):192-205. DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.1179
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ductal branching within the mammary gland is stimulated by prolactin (PRL) and progesterone (P) acting through their receptors (PRLR and PR). Analysis of mammary gland PRLR expression revealed increasing expression of the long form (L-PRLR) and two of the three short forms (S1- and S3-PRLR) during puberty that became maximal late in pubescence and early gestation, then declined during gestation. By contrast, S2-PRLR mRNA levels remained constant. Examination of stromal PRLR revealed the consistent expression of L-PRLR mRNA. By contrast, S1-PRLR was present only in the mammary fat pad of neonates, whereas high neonatal expression of S2-PRLR became undetectable during puberty. Stromal expression of S3-PRLR decreased to low levels during puberty and was undetectable during lactation and involution. Exogenous PRL stimulated DNA synthesis in both epithelial and adjacent stromal cells in vivo. Distribution of PRLR mRNA in mammary epithelium was homogeneous before puberty and heterogeneous during puberty, gestation, and early lactation. A mutual role for PRLR and PR was suggested wherein PR mRNA increased beyond 6 weeks to maximal levels during puberty and gestation then became undetectable during lactation. In situ hybridization revealed that PR mRNA distribution is homogeneous in the ductal epithelium before 6 weeks and heterogenous during puberty and gestation and that PRLR and PR are similarly distributed in the ductal epithelium. Neither hormone stimulated DNA synthesis in mammary glands of ovariectomized females while their effects interacted markedly. These results demonstrate differential PRLR transcription by epithelial and stromal cells and a similar distribution of PRLR and PR that may facilitate the interaction between P and PRL during ductal branching in the mammary gland.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
52 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many organs respond to physiological challenges by changing tissue size or composition. Such changes may originate from tissue-specific stem cells and their supportive environment (niche). The endocrine system is a major effector and conveyor of physiological changes and as such could alter stem cell behavior in various ways. In this review, we examine how hormones affect stem cell biology in four different organs: the ovary, intestine, hematopoietic system, and mammary gland. Hormones control every stage of stem cell life, including establishment, expansion, maintenance, and differentiation. The effects can be cell autonomous or non-cell autonomous through the niche. Moreover, a single hormone can affect different stem cells in different ways or affect the same stem cell differently at various developmental times. The vast complexity and diversity of stem cell responses to hormonal cues allows hormones to coordinate the body's reaction to physiological challenges. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology Volume 29 is October 06, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 07/2013; · 17.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The actions of prolactin (PRL) are mediated by both long (LF) and short isoforms (SF) of the PRL receptor (PRLR). Here, we report on a genetic and functional analysis of the porcine PRLR (pPRLR) SF. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within exon 11 of the pPRLR-SF give rise to four amino acid haplotypes of the intracellular domain. We identified the dimorphic insertion of a short interspersed repetitive DNA element (PRE-1) along with 32 SNPs and four other insertion/deletion sites within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of pPRLR-SF. The PRE-1 element reduced protein translation in vitro by 75%, whereas the combination of 10 SNPs and one insertion/deletion decreased translation by 50%. Full-length cDNAs for all four haplotypes of pPRLR-SF were cloned behind the elongation factor 1-alpha promoter and functionally analyzed in vitro. None of the haplotypes could initiate transcription from the ß-casein promoter, whereas all four were dominant negatives against PRL-activation of the pPRLR-LF. Two of the haplotypes completely inhibited pPRLR-LF activity at a four-fold excess, whereas the others required a six-fold excess to impart the same effect. The ligand binding affinities of the pPRLR-SF haplotypes did not differ. Expression of the pPRLR-SF increased linearly during gestation in the endometrium and was hormonally regulated in a tissue-specific manner in the mammary glands and uterus. In conclusion, we identified a PRE-1 and other SNPs in the pPRLR-SF 3' UTR that reduce protein expression and four haplotypes of the pPRLR-SF that suppress pPRLR-LF signaling and may differentially impact the phenotypic effects of PRL in vivo.
    Animal Genetics 12/2013; · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TP53 is one of the most commonly mutated genes in cancer. In breast cancer, it is mutated in about 40% of primary clinical tumors and is associated with poor survival. The mammotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), and/or its receptor are also expressed in many breast cancers, and accumulating epidemiologic data link PRL to breast cancer development and progression. Like TP53 mutations, evidence for PRL activity is evident across several molecular cancer subtypes, and elevated PRL expression and loss of p53 have been observed in some of the same clinical tumors. In order to examine the interaction of these factors, we used genetically modified mouse models of mammary-specific p53 loss and local overexpression of PRL. We demonstrated that mammary PRL decreased the latency of tumors in the absence of p53, and increased the proportion of triple-negative claudin-low carcinomas, which display similarities to human clinical metaplastic carcinomas. Moreover, PRL/p53(-/-) carcinomas displayed higher rates of proliferation and more aggressive behavior. Transcripts associated with cell cycle progression, invasion and stromal reactivity were differentially expressed in carcinomas that developed in the presence of elevated PRL. PRL/p53(-/-) carcinomas also exhibited selectively altered expression of activating protein-1 components, including higher levels of c-Jun and FosL1, which can drive transcription of many of these genes and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The ability of PRL to promote claudin-low carcinomas demonstrates that PRL can influence this subset of triple-negative breast cancers, which may have been obscured by the relative infrequency of this cancer subtype. Our findings suggest novel therapeutic approaches, and provide a preclinical model to develop possible agents.Oncogene advance online publication, 22 July 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.278.
    Oncogene 07/2013; · 8.56 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
22 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014