The rfaH gene, which affects lipopolysaccharide synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is differentially expressed during the bacterial growth phase.
ABSTRACT We have cloned and sequenced the rfaH gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty2. The gene showed a high degree of similarity to the rfaH genes from Escherichia coli K-12 and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. A rfaH mutant was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. This mutant produced a rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with an incomplete core region. The defect in LPS expression that results from the rfaH mutation was corrected by a plasmid carrying the intact gene. The plasmid-borne rfaH gene also restored normal LPS synthesis in a rfaH mutant of E. coli. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to determine the effects of various environmental conditions on the expression of rfaH. The transcription of rfaH showed a growth-phase-dependent regulation, with maximal expression at the late exponential phase. Other environmental conditions, such as temperature or medium osmolarity, did not affect transcription of rfaH.
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ABSTRACT: Loss of the transcriptional antiterminator RfaH results in virulence attenuation (>10(4)-fold increase in 50% lethal dose) of the archetypal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 by both orogastric and intraperitoneal routes of infection in BALB/c mice. Oral immunization with the mutant efficiently protects mice against a subsequent oral infection with the wild-type strain. Interestingly, in vitro immunoreactivity is not confined to strain SL1344; rather, it is directed also towards other serovars of S. enterica and even Salmonella bongori strains.Infection and Immunity 07/2004; 72(7):4297-301. · 4.16 Impact Factor
Article: RpoS and RpoN are involved in the growth-dependent regulation of rfaH transcription and O antigen expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We reported earlier that the production of O antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella typhi) increases at the onset of stationary phase and correlates with a growth-regulated expression of the rfaH gene under the control of the alternative sigma factor RpoN (Microbiology 148 (2002) 3789). In this study, we demonstrate that RpoS also modulates rfaH promoter activity as revealed by the absence of growth-dependent regulation of an rfaH-lacZ transcriptional fusion and O antigen production in a S. typhi rpoS mutant. Introduction of a constitutively expressed rpoN gene into the rpoS mutant restored increased production of O antigen during stationary phase, suggesting that constitutive production of RpoN could overcome the RpoS defect. Similar results were observed when an rpoS rpoN double mutant was transformed with the intact rpoN gene. Thus, we conclude that both RpoS and RpoN control the rfaH promoter activity and concomitantly, the production of O-specific LPS in S. typhi.Microbial Pathogenesis 02/2004; 36(1):19-24. · 1.94 Impact Factor