Liver cancer risk is increased in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda in comparison to matched control patients with chronic liver disease
ABSTRACT Patients with porphyria and chronic liver disease could be at high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. To define the incidence of primary liver cancer and identify variables associated with the risk of cancer in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda in comparison to control patients.
Fifty-three patients with porphyria cutanea tarda were enrolled in a prospective study (median follow-up 72 +/- 54.1 months; range 12-216) and matched individually to a control case according to age (+/-5 years), sex, duration of follow up (+/- 5 years), severity of liver disease, and hepatitis C virus infection.
During follow-up hepatocellular carcinoma developed in 18 patients with porphyria and in four control patients. Incidence of primary liver cancer was 4.8 and 1.3 x 100 patients/year in the overall series of patients and of controls, respectively. The cumulative probability of being tumor free was significantly lower in porphyria cutanea tarda than in matched controls (75 vs 95%). Variables independently associated with the risk of liver cancer were the presence of porphyria and cirrhosis at enrollment (Odds ratios: 5.3, 95% CI 1.4-19.3 and 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.6, respectively).
Patients with porphyria are at higher risk of developing liver cancer than matched control patients.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common form of cancer that arises from hepatocytes and whose risk may be affected by several known environmental factors, including hepatitis viruses, alcohol, cigarette smoking, and others. Rare monogenic syndromes, such as alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, glycogen storage disease type I, hemochromatosis, acute intermittent and cutanea tarda porphyria, as well as hereditary tyrosinemia type I are associated with a high risk of HCC. Several common conditions or diseases inherited as polygenic traits e.g. autoimmune hepatitis, type 2 diabetes, a family history of HCC, hypothyroidism, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis also show an increased risk of HCC compared to the general population. Overall, the genetic susceptibility to HCC is characterized by a genetic heterogeneity; a high individual risk of HCC may thus be caused by several unlinked single gene defects, whose carriers are rare in the general population, or by more common conditions inherited by complex genetics.Journal of Hepatology 02/2010; 52(2-52):252-257. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2009.11.015 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatic porphyries have been associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer (PLC), which on the other hand may cause an increased porphyrin production. To evaluate the role of an underlying liver disorder we analyzed porphyrins in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 65), cholangiocellular carcinoma (n = 3), or suspected PLC, which turned out to be metastases (n = 18) or a benign disorder (n = 11). None of the patients had a family history of porphyry or clinical signs of porphyry. Increased aminolevulinic acid or porphyrin values were common not only in patients with PLC (43%) but also in metastatic (50%) and benign (64%) liver disorders. The corresponding proportion for HCC patients with liver cirrhosis (55%) was higher (P < .05) than in those without cirrhosis (17%). We conclude that symptomatic porphyries are unusual in PLC, whereas elevated urinary and/or faecal porphyrins are common, primarily reflecting a parallel liver disease and not the PLC.Gastroenterology Research and Practice 10/2009; 2009:402394. DOI:10.1155/2009/402394 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear.HPB 02/2005; 7(1):26-34. DOI:10.1080/13651820410024049 · 2.05 Impact Factor