Highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell cancer of the cervix: a rare, locally aggressive tumor not associated with human papillomavirus or squamous intraepithelial lesions.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to report an unusual variant of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, not associated with either human papillomavirus infection or antecedent squamous intraepithelial lesions. Five women had a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer discovered at hysterectomy performed for prolapse (two cases), leiomyoma (one case), or a vaginal fistula (two cases). The women ranged in age from 47 to 78 years (mean 59 years). Four of the five had a history of normal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears; the other had a Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). All had large cervical tumors (two with parametrial involvement and one with vaginal involvement) that showed extensive keratin formation, an inverted pattern of growth, and, except for one case, minimal cytologic atypia. There was extensive hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis adjacent to each tumor; none had evidence of squamous intraepithelial lesion. Human papillomavirus testing by polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization and reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction in situ was negative in each case, compared with a detection rate of 107 of 108 (99%) for squamous intraepithelial lesion-associated cervical squamous cell and adenocarcinomas. Two of the women died of extensive local recurrence; two other women were recently diagnosed. We conclude that highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare entity not associated with human papillomavirus infection or squamous intraepithelial lesion and thus difficult to detect on routine cervical cancer screening.
- SourceAvailable from: Galina VolgarevaBladder Cancer - From Basic Science to Robotic Surgery, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-839-7
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hyperexpression of p16(INK4a) protein is an early marker of cervical cancer. Hyperexpression of INK4a gene encoding this protein at the level of mRNA and p16(INK4a) was detected in tumor cells of some patients with bladder cancer associated with human papilloma virus-16. However, in contrast to cervical cancer, this phenomenon in urothelial carcinomas does not correlate with expression of human papilloma virus-16 oncogenes E6 and E7.Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 08/2010; 149(2):242-5. DOI:10.1007/s10517-010-0917-0 · 0.34 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endocervical polyps are common benign lesions that typically arise in the endocervical canal of women from 40 to 60 years old. The reported incidence of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) occurring in an endocervical polyp is typically less than 1/1,000 (0.1%). We report on 9 cases of SIL arising in otherwise classic benign endocervical polyps; these lesions were from a pool of about 1500 endocervical polyps for an incidence of approximately 0.5%. Five cases were low-grade SIL; of the 4 cases of high-grade SIL, 1 was associated with an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In 8/9 cases, there was no evidence of SIL on colposcopic examination or biopsy of the remainder of the cervix. There were 12 Pap smears (either concurrent or from 6 mo to 2 yr before the biopsy-proven SIL) taken from the 9 women and most (10/12%-83%) were diagnosed as normal (7), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), favor reactive changes (1), or ASCUS (2) whereas the other 2 (17%) smears were diagnosed as low-grade SIL. Human papillomavirus DNA was evident in 7/8 (88%) of the polyps with SIL as determined by in situ hybridization. We conclude that cervical SILs can occur de novo in endocervical polyps, their incidence may be increasing, and, due to their presence in the endocervical canal, where they are much less accessible to sampling with a cytobrush/spatula, may not be evident in the Pap smear.International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 09/2008; 27(4):582-90. DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e31817e0928 · 2.07 Impact Factor