Highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell cancer of the cervix: a rare, locally aggressive tumor not associated with human papillomavirus or squamous intraepithelial lesions.
Department of Pathology, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus 43210, USA.American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 11/2001; 25(10):1310-5.
The purpose of this study is to report an unusual variant of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, not associated with either human papillomavirus infection or antecedent squamous intraepithelial lesions. Five women had a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer discovered at hysterectomy performed for prolapse (two cases), leiomyoma (one case), or a vaginal fistula (two cases). The women ranged in age from 47 to 78 years (mean 59 years). Four of the five had a history of normal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears; the other had a Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). All had large cervical tumors (two with parametrial involvement and one with vaginal involvement) that showed extensive keratin formation, an inverted pattern of growth, and, except for one case, minimal cytologic atypia. There was extensive hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis adjacent to each tumor; none had evidence of squamous intraepithelial lesion. Human papillomavirus testing by polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization and reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction in situ was negative in each case, compared with a detection rate of 107 of 108 (99%) for squamous intraepithelial lesion-associated cervical squamous cell and adenocarcinomas. Two of the women died of extensive local recurrence; two other women were recently diagnosed. We conclude that highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare entity not associated with human papillomavirus infection or squamous intraepithelial lesion and thus difficult to detect on routine cervical cancer screening.
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ABSTRACT: The potential for a bioterrorism-induced smallpox outbreak has been much discussed of late. The literature of the late 1960s stressed that the distinction between smallpox and the other viral-induced vesicle-forming diseases, namely varicella zoster and disseminated herpes simplex, was difficult to make. Given that the cutaneous manifestations of smallpox would be among the initial symptoms, we reviewed 2 cases of smallpox diagnosed in South America in the 1970s in conjunction with 9 cases of multiple skin vesicles diagnosed as either disseminated herpes simplex or varicella-zoster. These were examined by routine hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E) as well as by in situ hybridization. A blind review of the cases demonstrated that each showed striking intraepithelial vesicles containing multinucleated squamous cells exhibiting a ground glass appearance of the nuclear chromatin. Thus, as expected, routine H&E examination could not differentiate the 2 smallpox cases from the other 9 samples. In situ hybridization easily distinguished the 2 cases of smallpox from the other 9 samples, 5 of which contained varicella-zoster (two had been misdiagnosed as herpes) and the other 4 were disseminated herpes simplex. The in situ test, readily accomplished in any histology-based molecular laboratory in 4 hours, allows for the rapid and specific identification of smallpox infection and, importantly, its distinction from its mimics. Formalin fixation, which is optimal for in situ hybridization, guarantees the inactivation of the smallpox virus.Diagnostic Molecular Pathology 06/2003; 12(2):103-7. DOI:10.1097/00019606-200306000-00006 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In a woman with cervical cancer and a distant lesion, the histologic distinction of metastatic cervical cancer versus another primary tumor or metastases from another cancer can be difficult and has important clinical implications. Criteria for inclusion in the study were a history of primary cervical cancer and a new lesion in which the pathologic differential diagnosis was metastatic cervical cancer versus new primary versus metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Ten cases were identified. The cervical cancers and the other lesion(s) were tested for human papillomavirus DNA by in situ hybridization and human papillomavirus RNA (E6/E7) by reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in the primary cervical cancer by in situ hybridization in five of nine cases; viral RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction in nine of nine cases (one case was not available for viral testing). In six cases, human papillomavirus was detected in the subsequent lesion (three lung, one cervical lymph node, two retroperitoneum), documenting the latter was metastatic cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus was not detected in the other four cases (two lung, two retroperitoneum in women with ovarian cancer), documenting that they were either primary lung cancers or metastatic ovarian cancers, respectively. Reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction for human papillomavirus RNA is a reliable method to differentiate metastatic cervical carcinoma from either a new primary tumor or a metastasis from another cancer.International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 02/2004; 23(1):7-12. DOI:10.1097/01.pgp.0000101084.35393.03 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apart from clinical stage and lymph node status, acknowledged to be among the most powerful predictors of outcome in cervical cancer, the determination of prognosis and thereby the need for adjuvant therapy in surgically treated patients currently relies on a variety of histopathologic factors. The role of many of these is controversial. This may be because histopathology is genuinely lacking in sensitivity for predicting tumor behavior in vivo. There is, however, wide variation in histopathologic definitions and criteria. This is probably the major reason for both the lack of reproducibility in the reporting of certain factors and in their diminished value in predicting behavior. Tumor type, grade, vascular invasion, pattern of invasion, and depth are all extremely important prognostic indicators when used individually or as a part of a scoring system.International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 09/2004; 14(5):741-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1048-891X.2004.014504.x · 1.96 Impact Factor
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