Comparison of Pkd1-targeted mutants reveals that loss of polycystin-1 causes cystogenesis and bone defects.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Human Molecular Genetics (Impact Factor: 7.69). 11/2001; 10(21):2385-96. DOI: 10.1093/hmg/10.21.2385
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A high level of polycystin-1 expression is detected in kidneys of all patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Mice that overexpress polycystin-1 also develop renal cysts. Whether overexpression of polycystin-1 is necessary for cyst formation is still unclear. Here, we report the generation of a targeted mouse mutant with a null mutation in Pkd1 and its phenotypic characterization in comparison with the del34 mutants that carry a 'truncation mutation' in Pkd1. We show that null homozygotes develop the same, but more aggressive, renal and pancreatic cystic disease as del34/del34. Moreover, we report that both homozygous mutants develop polyhydramnios, hydrops fetalis, spina bifida occulta and osteochondrodysplasia. Heterozygotes also develop adult-onset pancreatic disease. We show further that del34 homozygotes continue to produce mutant polycystin-1, thereby providing a possible explanation for increased immunoreactive polycystin-1 in ADPKD cyst epithelia in the context of the two-hit model. Our data demonstrate for the first time that loss of polycystin-1 leads to cyst formation and defective skeletogenesis, and indicate that polycystin-1 is critical in both epithelium and chondrocyte development.

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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical regulation of bone formation involves a complex biophysical process, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Polycystin-1 (PC1) is postulated to function as a mechanosensory molecule mediating mechanical signal transduction in renal epithelial cells. To investigate the involvement of PC1 in mechanical strain-induced signaling cascades controlling osteogenesis, PKD1 gene was stably silenced in osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 by using lentivirus-mediated shRNA technology. Here, our findings showed that mechanical tensile strain sufficiently enhanced osteogenic gene expressions and osteoblastic proliferation. However, PC1 deficiency resulted in the loss of the ability to sense external mechanical stimuli thereby promoting osteoblastic osteogenesis and proliferation. The signal pathways implicated in this process were intracellular calcium and Akt/β-catenin pathway. The basal levels of intracellular calcium, phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK-3β and nuclear accumulation of active β-catenin were significantly attenuated in PC1 deficient osteoblasts. In addition, PC1 deficiency impaired mechanical strain-induced potentiation of intracellular calcium, and activation of Akt-dependent and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, which was able to be partially reversed by calcium ionophore A23187 treatment. Furthermore, applications of LiCl or A23187 in PC1 deficient osteoblasts could promote osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation under mechanical strain conditions. Therefore, our results demonstrated that osteoblasts require mechanosensory molecule PC1 to adapt to external mechanical tensile strain thereby inducing osteoblastic mechanoresponse, partially through the potentiation of intracellular calcium and downstream Akt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91730. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The PKD1 gene is essential for a number of biological functions, and its loss-of-function causes autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The gene is developmentally regulated and believed to play an essential role in renal development. Previous studies have shown that manipulating murine renal organ cultures with dominant-negative forms of the Pkd1 gene impaired ureteric bud (UB) branching. In the current study, we analyzed different stages of renal development in two distinct mouse models carrying either a null mutation or inactivation of the last two exons of Pkd1. Surprisingly, metanephric explants from Pkd1-deleted kidneys harvested at day E11.5 did not show defects of UB branching and elongation, estimated by cytokeratin staining on fixed tissues or by Hoxb7-GFP time-lapse imaging. However, renal explants from Pkd1-mutants isolated at day E14.5 showed impaired nephrogenesis. Notably, we observed cell migratory defects in the developing endothelial compartment. Previous studies had implicated the Pkd1 gene in controlling cell migration and collagen deposition through PI3 kinases. In line with these studies, our results show that wild-type explants treated with PI3-kinase inhibitors recapitulate the endothelial defects observed in Pkd1 mutants, whereas treatment with VEGF only partially rescued the defects. Our data are consistent with a role for the Pkd1 gene in the endothelium that may be required for proper nephrogenesis.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a common hereditary disorder characterized by renal and extrarenal, cystic and noncystic manifestations. Connective tissue defects, including cerebral aneurysm, meningeal diverticula, abdominal wall hernias, intestinal diverticula, and cardiac valvular abnormalities, are widely known manifestations. Instead intracardiac aneurysms have never been reported in adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We describe a 65-year-old patient with end-stage renal disease due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and an atrial septum aneurysm associated with platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome.
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