Acute lung disease in the immunocompromised host.
ABSTRACT The immunocompromised host is an individual with a decreased defense mechanism or immunity. Pulmonary complications commonly seen in these patients include infections, neoplasms, drug-induced lung disease, and pulmonary hemorrhage. High-resolution CT plays an invaluable role in confirming the presence of pulmonary disease and narrowing down the differential diagnosis in this group of patients. It also is helpful as a guide to the optimal type and site of biopsy. The pattern and prevalence of disease varies considerably between the AIDS and the non-AIDS group, and therefore, these two groups are considered separately.
Article: Comparison of CT features of Aspergillus and bacterial pneumonia in severely neutropenic patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To establish whether a relationship exists between computed tomography features of lung opacities in severely neutropenic patients and their Aspergillus or bacterial etiology. Computed tomography scans of 124 patients with lung opacities larger than 5 mm occurring during severe (neutrophils <500/mm) and prolonged (>7 d) neutropenia-induced by bone marrow transplantation and/or high-dose chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies-were reviewed. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis or bacterial pneumonia were assessed by means of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial washing, trans-bronchial biopsy or (for bacteria only) blood cultures. Pulmonary opacities were classified as nodules or as consolidations. The presence of a perinodular ground-glass halo, the similarity of consolidations to a pulmonary infarction and the presence of cavitation (crescent-shaped or not) were recorded. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed in 68 patients; bacterial pneumonia in 56. Nodules (85) were more common than consolidations (39); their distribution among the patients with aspergillosis (52 nodules and 16 consolidations) and those with bacterial pneumonia (33 nodules and 23 consolidations) was even. Out of the 19 nodules surrounded by a halo 17 were due to aspergillosis. Nine consolidations (3 due to aspergillosis) were infarctionlike shaped. Cavitation appeared during 22/68 aspergillosis and 31/56 bacterial pneumonias; an air-crescent in 6 patients with aspergillosis and in 24 with bacterial pneumonia. Although rare enough, the perinodular halo is highly specific for invasive aspergillosis. The nodular pattern of lung opacities, their similarity to a pulmonary infarction, the occurrence of cavitation and the air-crescent are not related to aspergillosis.Journal of Thoracic Imaging 05/2007; 22(2):160-5. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cysts and cavities are commonly encountered abnormalities on chest radiography and chest computed tomography. Occasionally, the underlying nature of the lesions can be readily apparent as in bullae associated with emphysema. Other times, cystic and cavitary lung lesions can be a diagnostic challenge. In such circumstances, distinguishing cysts (wall thickness < or = 4 mm) from cavities (wall thickness > 4 mm or a surrounding infiltrate or mass) and focal or multifocal disease from diffuse involvement facilitates the diagnostic process. Other radiological characteristics, including size, inner wall contour, nature of contents, and location, when correlated with the clinical context and tempo of the disease process provide the most helpful diagnostic clues. Focal or multifocal cystic lesions include blebs, bullae, pneumatoceles, congenital cystic lesions, traumatic lesions, and several infectious processes, including coccidioidomycosis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and hydatid disease. Malignant lesions including metastatic lesions may rarely present as cystic lesions. Focal or multifocal cavitary lesions include neoplasms such as bronchogenic carcinomas and lymphomas, many types of infections or abscesses, immunologic disorders such as Wegener granulomatosis and rheumatoid nodule, pulmonary infarct, septic embolism, progressive massive fibrosis with pneumoconiosis, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, localized bronchiectasis, and some congenital lesions. Diffuse involvement with cystic or cavitary lesions may be seen in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, honeycomb lung associated with advanced fibrosis, diffuse bronchiectasis, and, rarely, metastatic disease. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest frequently helps define morphologic features that may serve as important clues regarding the nature of cystic and cavitary lesions in the lung.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 06/2003; 78(6):744-52. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Detecting diffuse lung infiltrates on chest radiography is a common clinical problem. Many diverse pathological processes can cause diffuse lung disease. The presentation of these diseases can vary from acute to chronic and includes a side array of radiological patterns that are optimally evaluated on high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. In diagnosing diffuse lung disease, it is helpful to focus on a few pivotal parameters to narrow the broad differential diagnosis. We describe the diagnostic approach to a patient with diffuse lung disease usingthe following key parameters: tempo of the pathological process, characteristics of the radiological pattern, and clinical context.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 12/2002; 77(11):1221-7; quiz 1227. · 5.70 Impact Factor