Vigabatrin for tuberous sclerosis complex
ABSTRACT Vigabatrin (VGB) was found to be an effective anti-epileptic drug to reduce infantile spasms in about 50% of patients and it has been found most effective in infantile spasms due to tuberous sclerosis (TSC) in which up to 95% of infants had complete cessation of their spasms. VGB was synthesized to enhance inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission by elevating GABA levels via irreversible inhibition of GABA transaminase. The mechanism underlying the particular efficacy of VGB in TSC is still unknown. However, its efficacy suggests that epileptogenesis in TSC may be related to an impairment of GABAergic transmission. VGB should be considered as the first line monotheraphy for the treatment of infantile spasms in infants with confirmed diagnosis of TSC. The efficacy of VGB treatment can be assessed in less than 10 days, but usually a few days treatment with a dose of about 100 mg/kg/day stops infantile spasms. The cessation of the spasms is associated with a marked improvement of behaviour and mental development. Unfortunately, it has become clear that the use of VGB is associated with a late appearance of visual-field defects in up to 50% of patients. Currently the minimum duration and doses of VGB treatment that can produce side effects are unknown. The feasibility of using short treatment periods (2-3 months) should be investigated.
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ABSTRACT: To review the efficacy, cognitive outcome and safety profile in children treated with vigabatrin (VGB) for infantile spasms (IS) and partial epilepsies related to tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and other etiologies. Retrospective review of children followed in the Pediatric Epilepsy Program of Massachusetts General Hospital for Children between May 2001 and March 2006 who were treated with VGB. Eighty-four children were treated with VGB, 68 of them were treated for IS, and 59 were treated for partial seizures (PS). Etiology (TSC or other) was the only predictive factor for IS control with VGB (p < 0.0003). IS control was achieved in 73% of children with TSC and 27% of children with other etiologies (combined 56%). Partial onset seizures were controlled in 34% of all children, (17% seizure free,17%reduction in seizure frequency >50%) and no predictive factor was found. Shorter time from seizure onset to VGB treatment (p < 0.027) and longer total time on VGB (p < 0.045) was associated with better IQ-developmental quotient (DQ) outcome in children treated for IS, but not with IS control. Adverse events were seen in 13%. Electroretinogram and/or behavioral visual field (VF) testing was done in 52%. VGB was discontinued in one case due to abnormal electroretinogram (ERG) findings. We confirm the efficacy of VGB in the treatment of IS and PS in an American population. VGB may improve cognitive outcome in the absence of complete IS control, but this finding is of uncertain clinical significance. VGB was well tolerated, and ophthalmologic side effects were uncommon.Epilepsia 07/2008; 49(7):1186-91. DOI:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01589.x · 4.58 Impact Factor
Chapter: Neurokutane Syndrome01/1970: pages 77-92;