Same patients, same critical events--different systems of care, different outcomes: description of a human factors approach aimed at improving the efficacy and safety of sedation/analgesia care.
ABSTRACT The practice of sedating pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures represents an ideal model for evaluating systems of health care delivery. We present detailed evidence of how different systems acting on the same patient under similar conditions result in very different outcomes. In contrast to epidemiological methods, our research follows a Human Factors approach of observing a small number of representative cases in great detail to characterize the critical components and processes of ideal sedation care. In this descriptive article we present a framework by which this work domain can be codified and evaluated. We conclude with a demonstration of how a patient simulator can be used to quantify responses to sedation emergencies. These data constitute the basis for innovating novel sedation care systems and strategies that will optimize safety and efficacy.
Article: A method for measuring system safety and latent errors associated with pediatric procedural sedation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The practice of sedating patients in the hospital for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures may be associated with life-threatening respiratory depression. We describe a method that uses a simulated event to identify latent system failures. A simulated scenario was developed that was reproducible with realistic physiology that degraded over time if no interventions occurred and improved when treated appropriately. Management of the scenario was observed in an ideal setting, a radiology department, and an emergency department. Event management was videotaped. The simulator's physiological data were saved automatically at 5-s intervals. Deviations from "best practice" were measured by using a set of video markers for event detection, diagnosis, and treatment. The simulator data files were used to calculate time out of range for critical variables. Hypoxia and hypotension lasted 4.5 and 5.5 min in the radiology and emergency departments, respectively, compared with 0 min in the gold standard setting. Many latent failures were identified by reviewing the video. This study supports the feasibility of using available human simulation as a crash-test dummy to more objectively quantify rescue system performance in actual sedation care settings. This method revealed vulnerabilities in personnel and in care systems even though sedation care regulatory requirements were met.Anesthesia & Analgesia 08/2005; 101(1):48-58, table of contents. · 3.29 Impact Factor