Bone loss rate in adrenal incidentalomas: a longitudinal study.
ABSTRACT Although by definition patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) do not have evident clinical syndromes, they may frequently suffer from subclinical hypercortisolism (SH). This is of some importance because of evidence that SH may lead to clinical complications, including bone loss. Thus, the understanding of bone involvement due to SH may be extremely important in the management of AI. Unfortunately, the available data on bone mineral density (BMD) in AI patients come from cross-sectional studies, which, to further complicate our understanding, are also conflicting, probably due to a different selection of patients and/or the variability in cortisol secretion (CS) often described in AI. To gain further insight about this topic, we performed a longitudinal study evaluating the rate of spinal and femoral bone loss levels in 24 females with AI. AI subjects were subdivided in two groups on the basis of the median of urinary cortisol secretion (UFC): group I (n = 12; UFC, <140.4 nmol/24 h) and group II (n = 12; UFC, >140.4 nmol/24 h). Spinal BMD was measured by both single energy quantitative computed tomography (L1-L4) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; L2-L4), and femoral BMD was determined by DXA. Bone loss rate was expressed as the change in z-score per yr. The spinal bone loss rate was higher (P < 0.005) in group II than in group I when measured by both quantitative computed tomography (-0.19 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.15) and DXA (-0.19 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.11). Moreover, CS and spinal bone loss rate were significantly correlated when patients were considered together. In conclusion, our data show that 1) AI patients with higher CS have increased lumbar trabecular bone loss rate than those with lower CS; and 2) the degree of spinal bone loss rate is related to the degree of CS. Thus, lumbar spine (LS) BMD has to be evaluated for well balanced decision-making on the treatment of choice for AI female patients.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Alfredo Scillitani, May 16, 2015
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective To provide practical recommendations for evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine diseases and nutritional conditions.ParticipantsMembers of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology, a methodologist, and a documentalist.Methods Recommendations were formulated according to the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed), using the following terms associated to the name of each condition: AND “osteoporosis”, “fractures”, “bone mineral density”, and “treatment”. Papers in English with publication date before 18 October 2011 were included. Current evidence for each disease was reviewed by two group members, and doubts, related to the review process or development of recommendations were resolved by the methodologist. Finally, recommendations were discussed in a meeting of the Working Group.Conclusions The document provides evidence-based practical recommendations for evaluation and management of endocrine and nutritional diseases associated to low bone mass or an increased risk of fracture. For each disease, the associated risk of low bone mass and fragility fractures is given, recommendations for bone mass assessment are provided, and treatment options that have shown to be effective for increasing bone mass and/or to decreasing fragility fractures are listed.ResumenObjetivoProporcionar unas recomendaciones prácticas para la evaluación y tratamiento de la osteoporosis asociada a diferentes enfermedades endocrinas y alteraciones nutricionales.ParticipantesMiembros del Grupo de Metabolismo Mineral de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición, un metodólogo y un documentalista.MétodosLas recomendaciones se formularon de acuerdo al sistema Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) para establecer tanto la fuerza de las recomendaciones como el grado de evidencia. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en Medline de la evidencia disponible para cada patología usando las siguientes palabras clave asociadas al nombre de cada patología: AND osteoporosis, fractures, bone mineral density, bone markers y treatment. Se revisaron artículos escritos en inglés con fecha de inclusión hasta 18 de octubre de 2011, y cada tema fue revisado por dos personas del Grupo. Un metodólogo resolvió las diferencias que surgieron durante el proceso de revisión de bibliografía y formulación de recomendaciones. Tras la formulación de las recomendaciones estas se discutieron en una reunión conjunta del Grupo de Trabajo.ConclusionesEl documento establece unas recomendaciones prácticas basadas en la evidencia acerca de la evaluación y tratamiento de la osteoporosis en las enfermedades endocrinas y nutricionales que asocian baja masa ósea o aumento del riesgo de fractura. Para cada patología, se señala el riesgo de osteoporosis y fracturas asociado, se formulan recomendaciones en cuanto a la evaluación de masa ósea y se enumeran las opciones terapéuticas que han demostrado eficacia en aumentar la densidad mineral ósea y/o reducir el riesgo de fractura.03/2012; 59(3):174–196. DOI:10.1016/j.endoen.2012.01.004
12/2013; , ISBN: 978-1-62948-341-2
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To update previous recommendations developed by the Working Group on Osteoporosis and Mineral Metabolism of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition for the evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to different endocrine and nutritional diseases. Members of the Working Group on Osteoporosis and Mineral Metabolism of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Recommendations were formulated according to the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the following terms associated to the name of each condition: AND "osteoporosis", "fractures", "bone mineral density", and "treatment". Papers in English with publication date between 18 October 2011 and 30 October 2014 were included. The recommendations were discussed and approved by all members of the Working Group. This update summarizes the new data regarding evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine and nutritional conditions. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.Endocrinología y Nutrición 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.endonu.2015.01.011