Lack of linkage and association between autoimmune thyroid diseases and the CTLA-4 gene in a large Tunisian family

Hedi Chaker Hospital, Şafāqis, Şafāqis, Tunisia
Human Immunology (Impact Factor: 2.28). 12/2001; 62(11):1245-50. DOI: 10.1016/S0198-8859(01)00316-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) including Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are inherited as complex traits. We have performed linkage and association studies to investigate the role of CTLA-4 gene in the AITDs development using the D2S311, D2S143, the intragenic CTLA-4 (AT)(n) microsatellite markers and the CTLA-4 (A/G) dimorphism in exon 1. Four extended pedigrees belonging to a large Tunisian family named Akr and including 154 individuals from which 20 were affected with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 26 with Graves' disease, were used in this investigation. No evidence for linkage with none of the markers was found under neither dominant nor recessive models [Z=-7.14 and Z=-14.32 at theta=0.0, respectively for the CTLA-4 (AT)(n) marker]. A family-based association study on 51 nuclear families derived from the Akr pedigree was performed by the FBAT approach applied to the CTLA-4 (AT)(n) marker and the CTLA-4 (A/G) dimorphism. We found no association of individual alleles to disease for both markers. These results showed no evidence for the involvement of the CTLA-4 locus in the AITDs pathogenesis.

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    ABSTRACT: Graves' disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder of multifactorial etiology with a polygenic mode of inheritance. A recent report has demonstrated that there is a linkage and an association between the genetic markers of the CTLA-4 gene on chromosome 2q33 and GD. In order to confirm this association in a Tunisian population, three polymorphisms of the CTLA-4 gene were analyzed: the first is at the −318 position from the ATG start codon consisting of a C/T change; the second is in position 49 of exon 1, which lies in the A/G transition; and the third is in the 3′ untranslated region with variant lengths of the dinucleotide (AT)n repeat. The genomic DNA from 144 patients with GD and 205 healthy individuals was genotyped after specific polymerase chain reaction amplification. Comparative analysis using a χ2 test showed a weak yet significant difference in allele frequencies of the A/G dimorphic marker between patients and controls (P < 0.05), and a significant increase of A/A homozygous individuals among patients (21.53 vs 12.7%, P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 1.89) was found. Analyses of CTLA-4 A/G polymorphism with respect to sex showed a significant difference in A/A genotypes between female patients and controls (OR = 2.14; 95%, 1.13 < OR < 4.04, P < 0.05). The distribution of CTLA-4 (AT)n allele frequencies differed between patients and controls (χ2 = 38.18, 20 degrees of freedom, P = 0.0084) and the highest OR was found with the CTLA-4 (AT)-224-bp allele (OR = 6.43, 1.7 < OR < 28.64; P = 0.001). In conclusion, these results show that the CTLA-4 gene, or one closely associated with it, confers susceptibility to GD in a Tunisian population.
    Clinical Immunology 01/2002; 101(3-101):361-365. DOI:10.1006/clim.2001.5121 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene association studies are less appealing in cancer compared to autoimmune diseases. Complexity, heterogeneity, variation in histological types, age at onset, short survival, and acute versus chronic conditions are cancer related factors which are different from an organ specific autoimmune disease, such as Grave's disease, on which a large body of multicentre data is accumulated. For years the focus of attention was on diversity and polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex in respect to human diseases specially the autoimmune diseases, but in recent years, access to other human gene sequences prompted investigators to focus on genes encoding the immune regulatory proteins such as the co-stimulatory, adhesion molecules, cytokines and chemokines and their receptors. Among them, CTLA4 (CD152) has been in the centre of attention for its pivotal role in autoimmunity and cancer. Although not fully understood, CTLA4 with no doubt plays an important role in the maintenance of the immune response by its expression on activated and regulatory T cells. CTLA4 (Gene ID:1493, MIM number:123890) has many variants and polymorphic forms, some present in regulatory positions, some in 3' UTR and the most important one in the leader sequence (+49 A/G). As a pivotal regulatory element of the immune responses magnitude, CTLA4 could be considered as a two-blade knife, for which only the optimal expression ensures an effective, but at the same time, safe immune response. It can accordingly be speculated that CTLA4 alleles associated with extraordinary expression could make a person more susceptible to tumor growth and/or progression. On the other hand, alleles associated with a compromised CTLA4 expression/function may accelerate the formation and/or manifestation of inflammatory autoimmune disorder. I hypothesized a spectrum of the functional dichotomy of CTLA4 SNPs diverging from autoimmunity to cancer. To examine these hypotheses, results from previously published investigations on CTLA4 polymorphisms together with the work done by our own group are discussed in details. Because the most published data are about the polymorphism at position +49, I concentrated on this position; however the data regarding other SNPs are also included for comparison. To support the significance of CTLA4 gene variation in these two major human diseases evidences from organ transplantation are also included. As will be discussed in the manuscript, our work and reports by others from a normal population perspective support the hypothesis that individuals inheriting a GG genotype at position +49, for which lower CTLA4 expression has been extensively suggested, are more susceptible for developing autoimmune disorders and those with AA genotype, with an existence of a state of self-tolerance, may have a higher chance of developing cancer. CTLA4 SNPs may accordingly be considered as a crucial element, along with other known or yet unknown mechanisms, in keeping the immune balance in predisposed individuals to cancer and autoimmunity. Although an spectrum line can be drawn between autoimmunity and cancer by considering published data regarding CTLA4 +49 polymorphism, the extreme functional dichotomy of this SNP appears to be more complex and difficult to understand, but there is no doubt that the future investigations will resolve most ambiguities.
    Iranian journal of immunology: IJI 09/2011; 8(3):127-49. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) with autoimmune thyroid diseases in the Lebanese population. A total of 128 patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (55 with Graves' disease (GD) and 73 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)) were typed for HLA DQA1 (0301 and 0501) and DQB1 (0201, 0302, and 0303) and for 49A/G CTLA-4 using PCR-based sequence-specific priming methods. A total of 186 matched controls were typed for the same alleles and compared to the diseased population. Results showed no significant differences in HLA DQB1*0201 or DQB1*0301 allelic frequencies or CTLA-4 polymorphisms between patients and controls. For GD, there was a weak association with HLA DQB1*0302 [34.6% (19 of 55) vs. 21.5% (40 of 186), P = 0.048, odds ratio (OR) = 1.926, confidence interval (CI) = 0.999-3.715] and HLA DQB1*0302-DQA1*0501 haplotype [56.36% (31 of 55) vs. 40.8% (76 of 186), P = 0.042, OR = 1.870, CI = 1.018-3.433]. For HT, the frequencies of DQB1*0302-DQA1*0501 haplotype [28.8% (21of 73) vs. 14.5% (27 of 186), P = 0.008, OR = 2.378, CI = 1.241-4.558] and DQB1*0302-DQA1*0301 haplotype [60.2% (44 of 73) vs. 38.7% (72 of 186), P = 0.002, OR = 2.402, CI = 1.381-4.180] were significantly higher in patients. On the other hand, weak association was found between HT and DQA1*0301 allele [32.9% (24 of 73) vs. 20.9% (39 of 186), P = 0.044, OR = 1.846, CI = 1.011-3.373]. Findings show that DQB1*0302-DQA1*0501 and DQB1*0302-DQA1*0301 haplotypes may play a role in the pathogenesis of HT in the Lebanese population. For the 49A/G CTLA-4 polymorphism, no significant difference was found between patients and controls.
    Journal of community genetics 03/2012; 3(4):259-64. DOI:10.1007/s12687-012-0085-1


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