Subunits of the translation initiation factor eIF2B are mutant in leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter.
ABSTRACT Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is an inherited brain disease that occurs mainly in children. The course is chronic-progressive with additional episodes of rapid deterioration following febrile infection or minor head trauma. We have identified mutations in EIF2B5 and EIF2B2, encoding the epsilon- and beta-subunits of the translation initiation factor eIF2B and located on chromosomes 3q27 and 14q24, respectively, as causing VWM. We found 16 different mutations in EIF2B5 in 29 patients from 23 families. We also found two distantly related individuals who were homozygous with respect to a missense mutation in EIF2B2, affecting a conserved amino acid. Three other patients also had mutations in EIF2B2. As eIF2B has an essential role in the regulation of translation under different conditions, including stress, this may explain the rapid deterioration of people with VWM under stress. Mutant translation initiation factors have not previously been implicated in disease.
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ABSTRACT: The great increase in successful linkage studies in a number of higher eukaryotes during recent years has essentially resulted from major improvements in reference genetic linkage maps, which at present consist of short tandem repeat polymorphisms of simple sequences or microsatellites. We report here the last version of the Généthon human linkage map. This map consists of 5,264 short tandem (AC/TG)n repeat polymorphisms with a mean heterozygosity of 70%. The map spans a sex-averaged genetic distance of 3,699 cM and comprises 2,335 positions, of which 2,032 could be ordered with an odds ratio of at least 1,000:1 against alternative orders. The average interval size is 1.6 cM; 59% of the map is covered by intervals of 2 cM at most and 1% remains in intervals above 10 cM.Nature 04/1996; 380(6570):152-4. · 38.60 Impact Factor
- Molecular and Cellular Biology - MOL CELL BIOL. 01/2000; 20(11):3965-3976.
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ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF-2B plays an important role in translation regulation and has been suggested to be implicated in the increased protein synthesis promoted in response to growth factors. We have used primary cultured neurons to delineate the signaling pathways by which insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which plays a critical role in the survival of neuronal cells, promotes eIF-2B and protein synthesis activation. Treatment of cortical neurons with IGF-1 (100 ng/ml) for 30 min stimulates [(3)H]methionine incorporation, and a parallel increase in eIF-2B activity was observed. Wortmannin and LY294002 reversed both effects, indicating that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediates IGF-1-induced protein synthesis and eIF-2B activation. IGF-1 induced glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inactivation in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent fashion because it is inhibited by wortmannin and LY294002. By using GSK-3 immunoprecipitated from untreated and IGF-1-treated cells, we demonstrate the phosphorylation of eIF-2B coincident with its inactivation. The treatment of cortical neurons with IGF-1 also promoted the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The MAPK-activating kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 inhibited MAPK activation and reversed IGF-1-induced protein synthesis and eIF-2B activation. These findings suggest that IGF-1-induced eIF-2B activation on neurons is promoted through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and GSK-3 kinase, and we report an IGF-1-induced MEK/MAPK activation pathway implicated in eIF-2B activation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2000; 275(25):19192-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor