MD-2 and TLR4 N-linked glycosylations are important for a functional lipopolysaccharide receptor.
ABSTRACT The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor is a multi-protein complex that consists of at least three proteins, CD14, TLR4, and MD-2. Because each of these proteins is glycosylated, we have examined the functional role of N-linked carbohydrates of both MD-2 and TLR4. We demonstrate that MD-2 contains 2 N-glycosylated sites at positions Asn(26) and Asn(114), whereas the amino-terminal ectodomain of human TLR4 contains 9 N-linked glycosylation sites. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that cell surface expression of MD-2 did not depend on the presence of either N-linked site, whereas in contrast, TLR4 mutants carrying substitutions in Asn(526) or Asn(575) failed to be transported to the cell surface. Using a UV-activated derivative of Re595 LPS (ASD-Re595 LPS) in cross-linking assays, we demonstrated a critical role of MD-2 and TLR4 carbohydrates in LPS cross-linking to the LPS receptor. The ability of the various glycosylation mutants to support cell activation was also evaluated in transiently transfected HeLa cells. The double mutant of MD-2 failed to support LPS-induced activation of an interleukin-8 (IL-8) promoter-driven luciferase reporter to induce IL-8 secretion or to activate amino-terminal c-Jun kinase (JNK). Similar results were observed with TLR4 mutants lacking three or more N-linked glycosylation sites. Surprisingly, the reduction in activation resulting from expression of the Asn mutants of MD-2 and TLR4 can be partially reversed by co-expression with CD14. This suggests that the functional integrity of the LPS receptor depends both on the surface expression of at least three proteins, CD14, MD-2, and TLR4, and that N-linked sites of both MD-2 and TLR4 are essential in maintaining the functional integrity of this receptor.
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported that neuraminidase (NA) pretreatment of human PBMCs markedly increased their cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To study the mechanisms by which this occurs, we transfected HEK293T cells with plasmids encoding TLR4, CD14, and MD2 (three components of the LPS receptor complex), as well as a NFκB luciferase reporting system. Both TLR4 and MD2 encoded by the plasmids are α-2,6 sialylated. HEK293T cells transfected with TLR4/MD2/CD14 responded robustly to the addition of LPS; however, omission of the MD2 plasmid abrogated this response. Addition of culture supernatants from MD2 (sMD2)-transfected HEK293T cells, but not recombinant, non-glycosylated MD2 reconstituted this response. NA treatment of sMD2 enhanced the LPS response as did NA treatment of the TLR4/CD14-transfected cell supplemented with untreated sMD2, but optimal LPS-initiated responses were observed with NA-treated TLR4/CD14-transfected cells supplemented with NA-treated sMD2. We hypothesized that removal of negatively charged sialyl residues from glycans on the TLR4 complex would hasten the dimerization of TLR4 monomers required for signaling. Co-transfection of HEK293T cells with separate plasmids encoding either YFP- or FLAG-tagged TLR4, followed by treatment with NA and stimulation with LPS, led to an earlier and more robust time-dependent dimerization of TLR4 monomers on co-immunoprecipitation, compared to untreated cells. These findings were confirmed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. Overexpression of human Neu1 increased LPS-initiated TLR4-mediated NFκB activation and a NA inhibitor suppressed its activation. We conclude that (1) sialyl residues on TLR4 modulate LPS responsiveness, perhaps by facilitating clustering of the homodimers, and that (2) sialic acid, and perhaps other glycosyl species, regulate MD2 activity required for LPS-mediated signaling. We speculate that endogenous sialidase activity mobilized during cell activation may play a role in this regulation.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e32359. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Unique properties of the chicken TLR4/MD-2 complex: selective lipopolysaccharide activation of the MyD88-dependent pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During evolution, mammals have evolved a powerful innate immune response to LPS. Chickens are much more resistant to LPS-induced septic shock. Herein we report that chickens sense LPS via orthologs of mammalian TLR4 and myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) rather than the previously implicated chicken TLR2 isoform type 2 (chTLR2t2) receptor. Cloning and expression of recombinant chTLR4 and chMD-2 in HeLa 57A cells activated NF-kappaB at concentrations of LPS as low as 100 pg/ml. Differential pairing of chicken and mammalian TLR4 and MD-2 indicated that the protein interaction was species-specific in contrast to the formation of functional human and murine chimeric complexes. The chicken LPS receptor responded to a wide variety of LPS derivatives and to the synthetic lipid A compounds 406 and 506. The LPS specificity resembled the functionality of the murine rather than the human TLR4/MD-2 complex. Polymorphism in chTLR4 (Tyr(383)His and Gln(611)Arg) did not influence the LPS response. Interestingly, LPS consistently failed to activate the MyD88-independent induction of IFN-beta in chicken cells, in contrast to the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) that yielded a potent IFN-beta response. These results suggest that chicken lack a functional LPS-specific TRAM-TRIF (TRIF-related adapter molecule/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta) signaling pathway, which may explain their aberrant response to LPS compared with the mammalian species.The Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 181(6):4354-62. · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intrinsic cellular defenses are non-specific antiviral activities by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs), one of the pathogen recognize receptor (PRR), sense various microbial ligands. Especially, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 recognize viral ligands such as glycoprotein, single- or double-stranded RNA and CpG nucleotides. The binding of viral ligands to TLRs transmits its signal to Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) to activate transcription factors via signal transduction pathway. Through activation of transcription factors, such as interferon regulatory factor-3, 5, and 7 (IRF-3, 5, 7) or nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), type I interferons are induced, and antiviral proteins such as myxovirus-resistance protein (Mx) GTPase, RNA-dependent Protein Kinase (PKR), ribonuclease L (RNase L), Oligo-adenylate Synthetase (OAS) and Interferon Stimulated Gene (ISG) are further expressed. These antiviral proteins play an important role of antiviral resistancy against several viral pathogens in infected cells and further activate innate immune responses.Yonsei medical journal 01/2010; 51(1):9-17. · 0.77 Impact Factor