Pharmacodynamic modeling of oral levodopa in Parkinson's disease.
Annals of Neurology (Impact Factor: 11.19). 12/2001; 50(5):687-8. DOI:10.1002/ana.1268
- Annals of Neurology 04/2001; 49(3):285-7. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Motor fluctuations are a major disabling complication in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. To investigate whether such oscillations in mobility can be attributed to changes in the synaptic levels of dopamine, we studied prospectively patients in the early stages of Parkinson's disease with a follow-up after at least 3 years of levodopa treatment. At baseline, 3 positron emission tomography (PET) scans using [11C]raclopride before and after (1 hour and 4 hours) orally administered levodopa were performed on the same day for each patient. Patients who developed “wearing-off” fluctuations during the follow-up period had a different pattern of levodopa-induced changes in [11C]raclopride binding potential (BP) from that observed in patients who were still stable by the end of the follow-up. Thus, 1 hour post-levodopa the estimated increase in the synaptic level of dopamine was 3 times higher in fluctuators than in stable responders. By contrast, only stable responders maintained increased levels of synaptic dopamine in the PET scan performed after 4 hours. These results indicate that fluctuations in the synaptic concentration of dopamine precede clinically apparent “wearing-off” phenomena. The rapid increase in synaptic levels of dopamine observed in fluctuators suggests that increased dopamine turnover might play a relevant role in levodopa-related motor complications. Ann Neurol 2001;49:298–303Annals of Neurology 02/2001; 49(3):298 - 303. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between levodopa plasma concentration and the tapping effect, after a standard oral levodopa test, by kinetic-dynamic modeling in 40 parkinsonian patients with stable or fluctuating response to levodopa, and found no difference in levodopa plasma pharmacokinetics between stable and fluctuating patients. Conversely, levodopa equilibration half-life between plasma and effect-site concentration was five-fold shorter on average in fluctuating patients. Overall, levodopa equilibration half-life highly correlated with the duration of tapping response and provided a reliable quantitative index of central mechanisms that affect the length of clinical effect. Individual fitting of tapping measures to modeled drug effect-site concentrations by sigmoid Emax model revealed that fluctuating patients required almost two-fold higher levodopa concentrations (EC50) to elicit almost the same motor response (Emax). These findings suggest that shortening of levodopa clinical effect may be accompanied by a reduced drug affinity for the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system (EC50), with no change in its intrinsic activity (Emax).Neurology 03/1993; 43(2):367-71. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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