Article

The use of culture, pooled samples and PCR for identification of herds infected with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Uppsala.
Animal Health Research Reviews 07/2001; 2(1):37-43. DOI: 10.1079/AHRR200120
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The sensitivity of culturing Brachyspira hyodysenteriae was determined after sampling with swabs from porcine fecal specimens inoculated with tenfold dilutions of a field strain of these microbes. After storage of swabs, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae was recovered throughout the first 3 weeks after inoculation from feces with more than 140 cells/g. Viable spirochetes could still be recovered after up to 83 days of storage from feces, with 1.4 x 10(6) cells or more per gram. Culture for Brachyspira spp. was performed on 285 rectal swabs, which were pooled in batches of five. The number of pooled samples positive for B. hyodysenteriae corresponded with the sum results of individual analysis of the corresponding collections of five samples. A PCR system based on the tlyA gene of B. hyodysenteriae was developed and tested on primary cultures of pooled samples. The results of the PCR assay showed a 97% correlation with the culture results. The prevalence of Brachyspira spp. was determined in five swine herds and found to be highest among breeding gilts and boars aged 13-16 weeks and among 6-12-week-old weaned pigs. In contrast, Brachyspira spp. were only rarely found in sows, which may reflect the development of immunity by adult pigs to all species of the genus.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
141 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The fastidious, anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira is capable of causing enteric disease in avian, porcine and human hosts, amongst others, with a potential for zoonotic transmission. Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS), the resulting disease from colonisation of the caeca and colon of poultry by Brachyspira leads to production losses, with an estimated annual cost of circa £18 million to the commercial layer industry in the United Kingdom. Of seven known and several proposed species of Brachyspira, three are currently considered pathogenic to poultry; B. alvinipulli, B. intermedia and B. pilosicoli. Currently, AIS is primarily prevented by strict biosecurity controls and is treated using antimicrobials, including tiamulin. Other treatment strategies have been explored, including vaccination and probiotics, but such developments have been hindered by a limited understanding of the pathobiology of Brachyspira. A lack of knowledge of the metabolic capabilities and little genomic information for Brachyspira has resulted in a limited understanding of the pathobiology. In addition to an emergence of antibiotic resistance amongst Brachyspira, bans on the prophylactic use of antimicrobials in livestock are driving an urgent requirement for alternative treatment strategies for Brachyspira-related diseases, such as AIS. Advances in the molecular biology and genomics of Brachyspira heralds the potential for the development of tools for genetic manipulation to gain an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of Brachyspira.
    Veterinary Microbiology 11/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine sapeloviruses (PSVs) in Korea, a total of 100 diarrhea fecal samples from pigs were analyzed by RT-PCR and nested PCR assays with primer pairs specific for the VP1 gene. Overall, 34 % of the diarrhea samples tested positive for PSV, and a high proportion of infections occurred along with a variety of other enteric viruses and bacteria. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 genes revealed pronounced genetic diversities between PSVs from Korean and elsewhere. Our results indicate that PSV infections are very common in Korean pigs with diarrhea. The infecting strains are genetically diverse.
    Archives of Virology 11/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a modified selective medium to improve the recovery rate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and other clinically significant intestinal spirochaetes from porcine faeces. The susceptibility of five Brachyspira spp. type strains and five Thai field isolates of B. hyodysenteriae to the antimicrobials halquinol and flavomycin was determined by in vitro susceptibility tests in the agar dilution method, and optimal incorporation rates were confirmed by broth dilution. All the spirochaetes were susceptible to halquinol at ≤ 1 μg ml(-1), while 16 μg ml(-1) of flavomycin (F) allowed their growth, and therefore, only the latter was selected for further use. F and different combinations of colistin (C), spectinomycin (S) and rifampacin (R) were incorporated into pre-enrichment broths and/or agar plates, and growth of the spirochaetes from seeded faeces was determined. Two solid media were selected for further testing using faeces from 90 finishing pigs on 10 farms. A previously recommended method of pre-enrichment did not increase the recovery rate. The use of blood agar modified medium (BAM) containing F (16 μg ml(-1)), S (400 μg ml(-1)), R (30 μg ml(-1)) and colistin (C, 100 U ml(-1)) (assigning as BAM-CSRF) reduced the growth of contaminating intestinal microbiota and resulted in a significantly higher rate of spirochaete recovery than the previous recommended medium. BAM-CSRF is a useful new selective medium for the isolation of B. hyodysenteriae and other intestinal spirochaetes from pig faeces. The new selective medium for isolating B. hyodysenteriae and other Brachyspira spp. from pig faeces will improve their recovery and subsequent disease diagnosis.
    Letters in Applied Microbiology 04/2012; 54(4):330-5. · 1.63 Impact Factor