Striatal neuronal loss or dysfunction and choline rise in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
ABSTRACT Twelve previously untreated boys suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) before and after one dose (10 mg) of methylphenidate. Pre- and post-methylphenidate spectra were acquired bilaterally in the globus pallidus. Peaks of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol, glutamate and creatine (Cr) were measured and the ratios of the peaks were calculated and compared with data from ten matched controls. In children having ADHD, NAA/Cr ratio decreased significantly in the bilateral striatum while Cho/Cr ratio showed a mild unilateral increase. One oral dose of methylphenidate did not affect the ratios significantly. These findings suggest that the striatum was bilaterally involved in pediatric ADHD patients. Approximately 20-25% of neurons may have died or may be severely dysfunctional. There seems to be a mild hyperactivity of the cholinergic system.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Yu-Feng Zang, Aug 27, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: nsysu.edu.tw
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "However, most of the available MRS studies of ADHD were focused on childhood, and only two studies reporting neurometabolites ratios addressed subjects with average age in the adolescent range (Jin et al., 2001; Sun et al., 2005) . In these two studies, single-voxel 1 H-MRS was applied to investigate the basal ganglia of adolescents with ADHD, yielding a decreased NAA/Cr ratio in bilateral striatum (Jin et al., 2001) and right lenticular nucleus (Sun et al., 2005). Given that not all the children with ADHD will be clinically affected as adolescents, one could speculate that adolescents/adult patients with ADHD represent a distinct subpopulation, possibly with a different neurobiological or environmental underpinning . "
ABSTRACT: In this study, short echo time (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was applied for quantification of neurometabolites using the LC Model algorithm in Taiwanese adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Proton magnetic resonance spectra were acquired bilaterally on the prefrontal area (part of the anterior cingulate gyrus and part of the medial frontal gyrus) in 15 adolescents with ADHD (average age of 13.88years) and 22 controls (average age of 14.85years). Absolute metabolite levels and ratios relative to creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr) were obtained to be compared between groups. Results showed that adolescents with ADHD had significantly lower mean right prefrontal levels of Cr+PCr as compared with the controls. No significant differences between groups were noted in the remainder of the prefrontal metabolites. As for the group comparison of relative ratios, the N-acetylaspartate/Cr+PCr ratio was significantly higher in the right prefrontal regions of ADHD adolescents. This finding provides evidence of a right prefrontal neurochemical alteration in ADHD adolescents, which is consistent with current ADHD theory of prefrontal neuropathology with developmental mechanism. In addition, it highlights the importance of the method in interpretation of MRS findings in the context of ADHD.Psychiatry Research 02/2010; 181(3):199-203. DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.10.001 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "The hyperactivation of cortical – striatal neuronal pathways could lead to the increased levels of glutamate in basal ganglia (Carrey et al. 2007; MacMaster et al. 2003; Ferreira et al. 2009) and glutamate decrease in basal ganglia after 13/14–18 weeks lasting therapy (Carrey et al. 2003; Carrey et al. 2002). Higher levels of choline resonances were found in basal ganglia in both – adults and children with ADHD (Ferreira et al. 2009; Jin et al. 2001); particularly in the frontal lobe in ADHD children (Courvoisie et al. 2004) and in anterior cingulate cortex in ADHD adults (Colla et al. 2007). The hypermetabolism and increased levels of glutamate with its neurotoxic effect might explain the increased levels of choline as an indicator of membrane turnover. "
ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a most common psychiatric disorder in the childhood. The exact pathomechanisms related to ADHD core symptoms--hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention--are still unclear. The developmental dysfunction of cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical network combined with the dysregulation of catecholamine neurotransmitters could be responsible for symptoms of the disorder. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a method which allows a partial view on molecular mechanisms of biochemical and metabolic processes in human brain by in vivo measurement. We address the hypothesis of a potential pathomechanisms associated with ADHD symptoms which is based on the studies concerning magnetic resonance spectroscopy method and ADHD.Neuro endocrinology letters 01/2010; 31(4):438-45. · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies has implicated glutamate in the PFC and striatum (Carrey et al. 2002; Carrey et al. 2003; MacMaster et al. 2003; Courvoisie et al. 2004), although other studies have not reported this (Hesslinger et al. 2001; Jin et al. 2001; Yeo et al. 2003). Our previous pilot data had three main limitations: (1) heterogeneity of subtypes of ADHD, (2) most subjects were not treatment naïve, and (3) metabolite ratios rather than absolute metabolite levels were used. "
ABSTRACT: The glutamatergic prefrontal-striatal pathway has been implicated previously in the neurobiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used short echo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to examine glutamate in the prefrontal cortex, left striatum, and, as a control area, the occipital lobe. Thirteen treatment-naïve ADHD children and 10 healthy comparison subjects participated. All were males between the ages of 6 to 11 years of age. Twelve ADHD subjects were scanned after 8 weeks of treatment. Striatal glutamate, glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and creatine concentrations were greater in the ADHD subjects at baseline as compared to controls. Only striatal creatine, not glutamate or Glx, was reduced after stimulant treatment in the ADHD patients. No significant differences between groups were noted in the remainder of the striatal metabolites or any of the occipital lobe or prefrontal cortex metabolites. These findings provide initial evidence of a striatal creatine/glutamatergic dysregulation in ADHD.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 03/2007; 17(1):11-7. DOI:10.1089/cap.2006.0008 · 3.07 Impact Factor