Ventriculitis complicating use of intraventricular catheters in adult neurosurgical patients
ABSTRACT Ventriculitis is a serious complication of intraventricular catheter (IVC) use, with rates of IVC-related infections ranging from 0% to 45% and gram-positive organisms predominating. We prospectively analyzed ventriculostomy-related infections occurring among 157 adult neurosurgical patients (mean age, 54.9 years; 90 [57%] were women) from 1995 through 1998, to determine the incidence of, risk factors for, and organisms that cause ventriculitis. A total of 196 IVC events resulted in 11 infections (5.6%; 9 were caused by gram-negative organisms and 2 by coagulase-negative staphylococci). Independent risk factors for IVC-related infection include length of IVC placement (8.5 days [infected] vs. 5.1 days [uninfected]; P=.007) and cerebrospinal fluid leakage about the IVC (P=.003). The length of hospital stay (30.8 days vs. 22.6 days; P=.03) and mean total hospital charges ($85,674.27 vs. $55,339.21; P=.009) were greater for infected patients than for uninfected patients. In addition, a microbiologic shift from gram-positive organisms toward gram-negative organisms was noted. This study suggests that IVC-related infections remain serious infections that increase the length of hospitalization.
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ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) infections presenting to the emergency room include meningitis, encephalitis, brain and spinal epidural abscess, subdural empyema, and ventriculitis. These conditions often require admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and are complications of ICU patients with neurologic injury, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality. Reducing morbidity and mortality is critically dependent on rapid diagnosis and, perhaps more importantly, on the timely initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. New insights into the role of inflammation and the immune response in CNS infections have contributed to development of new diagnostic strategies using markers of inflammation, and to the study of agents with focused immunomodulatory activity, which may lead to further adjunctive therapy in human disease.Neurologic Clinics 06/2008; 26(2):427-68, viii. DOI:10.1016/j.ncl.2008.03.013 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This chapter focuses on early aggressive management of common infections of the central nervous system that require monitoring in an ICU setting. These include meningitis, encephalitis, brain and epidural abscess, subdural empyema and ventriculitis. It emphasizes priorities in evaluation and management due to increasing morbidity and mortality as a result of failure to appreciate non-specific symptoms or administer timely therapy. The emergence of organisms resistant to penicillin and cephalosporins has also further complicated the early management of bacterial meningitis. Current antimicrobial guidelines are provided along with discussion of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and controversial aspects of management.Critical Care Clinics 11/2006; 22(4):661-94; abstract viii-ix. DOI:10.1016/j.ccc.2006.11.009 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that the mortality and morbidity of acquired brain injury could be reduced if clinicians used an aggressive intracranial pressure guided approach to care. Despite nearly 50 years of evidence that intracranial pressure monitoring benefits patient care, only about half of the patients who could benefit are monitored. Some clinicians express concerns regarding risks such as bleeding, infections, and inaccuracy of the technology. Others cite cost as the reason. This article discusses the risks and benefits of intracranial pressure monitoring and the current state of evidence of why patients should be monitored.AACN Clinical Issues Advanced Practice in Acute and Critical Care 01/2005; 16(4):456-75. DOI:10.1097/00044067-200510000-00004