Ventriculitis complicating use of intraventricular catheters in adult neurosurgical patients

Division of Infectious Diseases, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. or
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 9.42). 01/2002; 33(12):2028-33. DOI: 10.1086/324492
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ventriculitis is a serious complication of intraventricular catheter (IVC) use, with rates of IVC-related infections ranging from 0% to 45% and gram-positive organisms predominating. We prospectively analyzed ventriculostomy-related infections occurring among 157 adult neurosurgical patients (mean age, 54.9 years; 90 [57%] were women) from 1995 through 1998, to determine the incidence of, risk factors for, and organisms that cause ventriculitis. A total of 196 IVC events resulted in 11 infections (5.6%; 9 were caused by gram-negative organisms and 2 by coagulase-negative staphylococci). Independent risk factors for IVC-related infection include length of IVC placement (8.5 days [infected] vs. 5.1 days [uninfected]; P=.007) and cerebrospinal fluid leakage about the IVC (P=.003). The length of hospital stay (30.8 days vs. 22.6 days; P=.03) and mean total hospital charges ($85,674.27 vs. $55,339.21; P=.009) were greater for infected patients than for uninfected patients. In addition, a microbiologic shift from gram-positive organisms toward gram-negative organisms was noted. This study suggests that IVC-related infections remain serious infections that increase the length of hospitalization.

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Manual surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is cumbersome and vulnerable to subjective interpretation. Automated systems are under development to improve efficiency and reliability of surveillance, for example by selecting high-risk patients requiring manual chart review. In this study, we aimed to validate a previously developed multivariable prediction modeling approach for detecting drain-related meningitis (DRM) in neurosurgical patients and to assess its merits compared to conventional methods of automated surveillance. METHODS Prospective cohort study in 3 hospitals assessing the accuracy and efficiency of 2 automated surveillance methods for detecting DRM, the multivariable prediction model and a classification algorithm, using manual chart review as the reference standard. All 3 methods of surveillance were performed independently. Patients receiving cerebrospinal fluid drains were included (2012-2013), except children, and patients deceased within 24 hours or with pre-existing meningitis. Data required by automated surveillance methods were extracted from routine care clinical data warehouses. RESULTS In total, DRM occurred in 37 of 366 external cerebrospinal fluid drainage episodes (12.3/1000 drain days at risk). The multivariable prediction model had good discriminatory power (area under the ROC curve 0.91-1.00 by hospital), had adequate overall calibration, and could identify high-risk patients requiring manual confirmation with 97.3% sensitivity and 52.2% positive predictive value, decreasing the workload for manual surveillance by 81%. The multivariable approach was more efficient than classification algorithms in 2 of 3 hospitals. CONCLUSIONS Automated surveillance of DRM using a multivariable prediction model in multiple hospitals considerably reduced the burden for manual chart review at near-perfect sensitivity. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(1): 65-75.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 01/2015; 36(1):65-75. DOI:10.1017/ice.2014.5 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to analyze the risk factors for ventriculostomy-related infections (VRIs) in the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NSICU) and the relationship between these risk factors and the patients' outcomes.
    01/2011; 26(4):208. DOI:10.4266/kjccm.2011.26.4.208
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECT External ventricular drains (EVDs) are commonly used for CSF diversion but pose a risk of ventriculitis, with rates varying in frequency from 2% to 45%. Results of studies examining the utility of prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy for the prevention of EVD-related infection have been contradictory, and no study to date has examined whether this approach confers additional benefit in preventing ventriculitis when used in conjunction with antibiotic-coated EVDs (ac-EVDs). METHODS A prospective performance analysis was conducted over 4 years to examine the impact of discontinuing systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after insertion of an ac-EVD on rates of catheter-related ventriculitis. Ventriculitis and other nosocomial infections were ascertained by a qualified infection disease nurse using definitions based on published standards from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, comparing the period when patients received systemic antibiotic therapy for the duration of EVD treatment (Period 1) compared with only for the peri-insertion period (Period 2). Costs were analyzed and compared across the 2 time periods. RESULTS Over the 4-year study period, 866 patients were treated with ac-EVDs for a total of 7016 catheter days. There were 8 cases of ventriculitis, for an overall incidence of 0.92%. Rates of ventriculitis did not differ significantly between Period 1 and Period 2 (1.1% vs 0.4%, p = 0.22). The rate of nosocomial infections, however, was significantly higher in Period 1 (2.0% vs 0.0% in Period 2, p = 0.026). Cost savings of $162,516 were realized in Period 2 due to decreased drug costs and savings associated with the reduction in nosocomial infections. CONCLUSIONS Prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy following placement of ac-EVDs does not seem to reduce the incidence of catheter-related ventriculitis and was associated with a higher rate of nosocomial infections and increased cost.
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