Ventriculitis is a serious complication of intraventricular catheter (IVC) use, with rates of IVC-related infections ranging from 0% to 45% and gram-positive organisms predominating. We prospectively analyzed ventriculostomy-related infections occurring among 157 adult neurosurgical patients (mean age, 54.9 years; 90 [57%] were women) from 1995 through 1998, to determine the incidence of, risk factors for, and organisms that cause ventriculitis. A total of 196 IVC events resulted in 11 infections (5.6%; 9 were caused by gram-negative organisms and 2 by coagulase-negative staphylococci). Independent risk factors for IVC-related infection include length of IVC placement (8.5 days [infected] vs. 5.1 days [uninfected]; P=.007) and cerebrospinal fluid leakage about the IVC (P=.003). The length of hospital stay (30.8 days vs. 22.6 days; P=.03) and mean total hospital charges ($85,674.27 vs. $55,339.21; P=.009) were greater for infected patients than for uninfected patients. In addition, a microbiologic shift from gram-positive organisms toward gram-negative organisms was noted. This study suggests that IVC-related infections remain serious infections that increase the length of hospitalization.
"Gram-positive organisms are predominant in microbiological cultures of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Due to the selective pressure exerted by pervasive use of prophylactic antibiotics, an increasing rate of Gram-negative infections has been reported [1,14,15]. The protective effects of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters against Gram-positive or Gram-negative infections have not been clarified. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters in preventing catheter-related infections during external ventricular drainage (EVD), we performed a meta-analysis and systematic review. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized prospective studies (NPSs) related to antimicrobial-impregnated EVD catheters were included. The primary outcome was the rate of cerebrospinal fluid infection (CFI). The secondary outcomes included the rate of time-dependent CFI and catheter bacterial colonization. We further performed subgroup analysis, meta-regression analysis, and microbial spectrum analysis. Four RCTs and four NPSs were included. The overall rate of CFIs was 3.6% in the antimicrobial-impregnated catheter group and 13.7% in the standard catheter group. The pooled data demonstrated that antimicrobial-impregnated catheters were superior to standard catheters in lowering the rate of CFIs (odds ratio (OR) = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12 to 0.52, P <0.05). In survival analysis, the 20-day infection rate was significantly reduced with the use of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters (hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.95, P <0.05). Furthermore, a significantly decreased rate of catheter bacterial colonization was noticed for antimicrobial-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.64, P <0.05). In subgroup analyses, although significant results remained for RCTs and NPSs, a subgroup difference was revealed (P <0.05). Compared with standard catheters, a significantly lower rate of CFIs was noticed for clindamycin/rifampin-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.73, P <0.05) and for minocycline/rifampin-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.21, P <0.05). However, no statistical significance was found when compared with silver-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.69, P = 0.18). In microbial spectrum analysis, antimicrobial-impregnated catheters were shown to have a lower rate of Gram-positive bacterial infection, particularly the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. In conclusion, the use of antimicrobial-impregnated EVD catheters could be beneficial for the prevention of CFI and catheter bacterial colonization. Although antibiotic-coated catheters seem to be effective, no sufficient evidence supports the efficacy of silver-impregnated catheters.
"If the managing physician chooses to minimize the shunting rate, the same parameters will now be predictive of greater LOS and be weaker predictors of the shunting rate. Hypothetically, a further increase in LOS will decrease the shunting rate further, although very prolonged EVD times can arguably increase the rate of infection. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute hydrocephalus (HCP) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often persists. Our previous study described factors that singly and combined in a formula correlate with permanent CSF diversion. We now aimed to determine whether the same parameters are applicable at an institution with different HCP management practice.
We reviewed records of 181 consecutive patients who presented with SAH and received an external ventricular drain (EVD) for acute HCP. After exclusion and inclusion criteria were met, 71 patients were analyzed. Data included admission Fisher and Hunt and Hess grades, aneurysm location, treatment modality, ventricle size, CSF cell counts and protein levels, length of stay (LOS) in the hospital, and the presence of craniectomy. Outcome measures were: (1) initial EVD challenge outcome; (2) shunting within 3 months; and (3) LOS.
Shunting correlated with Hunt and Hess grade, CSF protein, and the presence of craniectomy. The formula derived in our previous study demonstrated a weaker correlation with initial EVD challenge failure. Several parameters that correlated with shunting in the previous study were instead associated with LOS in this study.
The decision to shunt depends on management choices in the context of a disease process that may improve over time. Based on the treatment strategy, the shunting rate may be lowered but LOS increased. Markers of disease severity in patients with HCP after SAH correlate with both shunt placement and LOS. This is the first study to directly evaluate the effect of different practice styles on the shunting rate. Differences in HCP management practices should inform the design of prospective studies.
Surgical Neurology International 08/2011; 2:117. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.84241 · 1.18 Impact Factor
"In addition, it is frequently associated with the presence of a CSF shunt, external ventricular drainage (EVD), or other intracranial device. The risk of developing a ventriculitis or meningitis with an EVD in place is reported to be as high as 45%, but more commonly it is reported in the 10% to 15% range, and it depends on the type of EVD, insertion technique, management, and length of time the EVD is in place    . Hemorrhagic CSF is a risk factor for ventriculostomy-related infections , and hemorrhagic CSF likely contributes to the 10% incidence of such infections in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients who have EVDs, and the 13.7% incidence after intraventricular hemorrhage   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) infections presenting to the emergency room include meningitis, encephalitis, brain and spinal epidural abscess, subdural empyema, and ventriculitis. These conditions often require admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and are complications of ICU patients with neurologic injury, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality. Reducing morbidity and mortality is critically dependent on rapid diagnosis and, perhaps more importantly, on the timely initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. New insights into the role of inflammation and the immune response in CNS infections have contributed to development of new diagnostic strategies using markers of inflammation, and to the study of agents with focused immunomodulatory activity, which may lead to further adjunctive therapy in human disease.
Neurologic Clinics 06/2008; 26(2):427-68, viii. DOI:10.1016/j.ncl.2008.03.013 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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