Restoration of wild-type infectivity to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains lacking nef by intravirion reverse transcription.
ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein exerts several effects, both on infected cells and as a virion protein, which work together to enhance viral replication. One of these activities is the ability to enhance infectivity and the formation of proviral DNA. The mechanism of this enhancement remains incompletely understood. We show that virions with nef deleted can be restored to wild-type infectivity by stimulating intravirion reverse transcription. Particle composition and measures of reverse transcriptase activity remain the same for Nef(+) and Nef(-) virions both before and after natural endogenous reverse transcription (NERT) treatment. The effect of NERT treatment on virions pseudotyped with murine leukemia virus envelope protein was similar to that on particles pseudotyped with HIV-1 envelope protein. However, virions pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus G envelope protein showed no influence of Nef on NERT enhancement of infectivity. These observations suggest that Nef may function at a level prior to reverse transcription. Since NERT treatment results in partial disassembly of the viral core, we speculate that Nef may function at the level of core particle disassembly.
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ABSTRACT: Several epidemiologic and clinical studies suggest that patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the primary etiologic agent in AIDS, and other viruses, such as cytomegalovirus or human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), have a more severe clinical course than those infected with HIV alone. Cells infected with two viruses can, in some cases, give rise to phenotypically mixed virions with altered or broadened cell tropism and could therefore account for some of these findings. Such pseudotypes could alter the course of disease by infecting more tissues than are normally infected by HIV. We show here that HIV type 1 (HIV-1) efficiently incorporates the HTLV type I (HTLV-I) envelope glycoprotein and that both HIV-1 and HTLV-II accept other widely divergent envelope glycoproteins to form infectious pseudotype viruses whose cellular tropisms and relative abilities to be transmitted by cell-free virions or by cell contact are determined by the heterologous envelope. We also show that the mechanism by which virions incorporate heterologous envelope glycoproteins is independent of the presence of the homologous glycoprotein or heterologous gag proteins. These results may have important implications for the mechanism of HIV pathogenesis.Journal of Virology 02/1991; 65(1):162-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence indicates that the nef gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 augments rather than inhibits viral replication in both cell culture and in vivo models. In addition, nef alters various normal cellular processes, including the display of CD4 on the cell surface. However, it remains unknown whether the enhancement of infectivity and the downregulation of CD4 represent linked or independent biologic properties of this single protein. In the present studies, mutational analyses were performed to define structure-function relationships within the Nef protein that mediate these effects. To assess the functional consequences of these mutations, sensitive and reliable assays were developed to quantitate the viral infectivity enhancement and CD4 downregulation functions of Nef. The results indicate that membrane-targeting sequences at the N terminus of Nef are important for both functions of Nef, while certain other conserved regions are dispensable for both functions. A conserved proline-X-X repeat segment in the central core of the protein, which is reminiscent of an SH3-binding domain, is critical for the enhancement of infectivity function but is dispensable for CD4 downregulation. However, the downregulation of CD4 by Nef appears to involve a two-step process requiring the initial dissociation of p56lck from CD4 to permit engagement of the endocytic apparatus by CD4. Together, these findings demonstrate that the infectivity enhancement and CD4 downregulation activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef can be dissociated. Thus, these processes may be independent of one another in the viral replication cycle.Journal of Virology 08/1995; 69(7):4112-21. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is characterized by marked depletion of the T4+ helper subset of T cells. The aetiological agent of the disease, the human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III)/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV), specifically kills T4+ cells in vitro. Part of this specificity for the T4+ population residues in the relative efficiency with which HTLV-III infects these cells, as a result of a specific interaction between the T4 molecule and the virus envelope glycoprotein. In addition, the cytotoxic consequences of HTLV-III replication are dependent on cell type, as certain lymphoid and myeloid cells can be productively infected without notable cytopathic effect. Here we investigate the basis for the specific cytotoxicity of the virus, and report that high-level expression of the HTLV-III envelope gene induces syncytia and concomitant cell death in T4+ cell lines but not in a B-lymphocyte line. Syncytium formation depends on the interaction of envelope-expressing cells with neighbouring cells bearing surface T4 molecules. These results explain, at least in part, the specific cytopathic effect of HTLV-III infections.Nature 07/1986; 322(6078):470-4. · 38.60 Impact Factor