Leridistim, a chimeric dual G-CSF and IL-3 receptor agonist, enhances multilineage hematopoietic recovery in a nonhuman primate model of radiation-induced myelosuppression: effect of schedule, dose, and route of administration.
ABSTRACT Leridistim is from the myelopoietin family of proteins, which are dual receptor agonists of the human interleukin-3 and G-CSF receptor complexes. This study investigated the effect of dosage, administration route, and schedule of leridistim to stimulate multilineage hematopoietic recovery in total body irradiated rhesus monkeys. Animals were x-irradiated on day 0 (600 cGy, 250 kVp) and then received, on day 1, leridistim s.c. in an abbreviated, every-other-day schedule at 200 microg/kg, or daily at 50 microg/kg, or i.v. daily or every-other-day schedules at 200 microg/kg dose. Other cohorts received G-CSF (Neupogen((R)) [Filgrastim]) in an every-other-day schedule at 100 microg/kg/day, or autologous serum (0.1%) s.c. daily. Hematopoietic recovery was assessed by bone marrow clonogenic activity, peripheral blood cell nadirs, duration of cytopenias, time to recovery to cellular thresholds, and requirements for clinical support. Leridistim, administered s.c. every other day, or i.v. daily, significantly improved neutrophil, platelet, and lymphocyte nadirs, shortened the respective durations of cytopenia, hastened trilineage hematopoietic recovery, and reduced antibiotic and transfusion requirements. A lower dose of leridistim administered daily s.c. enhanced recovery of neutrophil and platelet parameters but did not affect lymphocyte recovery relative to controls. Leridistim, a novel engineered hematopoietic growth factor administered at the appropriate dose, route and schedule, stimulates multilineage hematopoietic reconstitution in radiation-myelosuppressed nonhuman primates.
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ABSTRACT: Gamma-tocotrienol (GT3), a promising radioprotectant, is shown to protect CD2F1 mice from radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia when given 24h prior to total-body irradiation. GT3 also is shown to increase white blood cells (WBC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) transiently in peripheral blood. We hypothesized that increases in WBC and ANC may involve stimulation of hematopoiesis possibly by cytokines and growth factors. To evaluate the effects of GT3 on hematopoietic system, we measured various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors by cytokine array and Bio-Plex assays. Both showed strong induction of various cytokines and chemokines. GT3 treatment resulted in significant increases in G-CSF, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-17, MIP-1α, and KC levels. G-CSF levels increased markedly within 12-24h after administration (5441 pg/ml in GT3-treated groups compared to 17 pg/ml in vehicle control). Most of these cytokine levels were elevated in the presence or absence of radiation. Time-course analysis of G-CSF and IL-6 induction showed that both cytokines were induced transiently after GT3 administration, and returned to normal levels by 48 h post-administration. For G-CSF, the peak was observed between 12 and 24h post-administration of GT3; however, the highest levels of IL-6 were obtained between 6 and 12h. These results demonstrate that GT3 induced high levels of G-CSF and other inflammatory cytokines and chemokines within 24h after administration. Survival studies reported showed that the most efficacious time for administering GT3 was 24h prior to irradiation, possibly because it induced key hematopoietic cytokines in that time window. These results also suggest a possible role of GT3-induced G-CSF stimulation in protecting mice from radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.International Immunopharmacology 12/2012; 14(4):495-503. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), induced by a promising radiation countermeasure, gamma tocotrienol (GT3), in protecting mice from lethal doses of ionizing radiation. CD2F1 mice were injected with an optimal dose of GT3 and a G-CSF antibody, and their 30-d survival was monitored. An appropriate antibody isotype was used as a control. Multiplex Luminex was used to analyze GT3-induced cytokines. G-CSF neutralization by exogenous administration of a G-CSF antibody was confirmed by analyzing serum cytokine levels. Our results demonstrate that GT3 significantly protected mice against ionizing radiation, and induced high levels of G-CSF in peripheral blood 24h after administration. Injection of a G-CSF neutralizing antibody to the GT3-treated mice resulted in complete neutralization of G-CSF and abrogation of its protective efficacy. Administration of a G-CSF antibody did not affect levels of other cytokines induced by GT3. Histopathology of bone marrow from GT3-treated and -irradiated mice demonstrated protection of the hematopoietic tissue, and also that such protection was abrogated by administering a G-CSF antibody. Our results suggest that induction of high levels of G-CSF by GT3 administration is responsible for its protective efficacy against radiation injury.Cytokine 04/2013; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; filgrastim) and its pegylated form (pegfilgrastim) are widely used to treat neutropenia associated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, AIDS-associated or drug-induced neutropenia, and neutropenic diseases. G-CSF facilitates restoration of neutrophil counts, decreases incidence of infection/febrile neutropenia and reduces resource utilization. G-CSF is also widely used to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells for hematopoietic transplant. Areas covered: We review the therapeutic use, cost effectiveness and disease impact of G-CSF for neutropenia, development of G-CSF biosimilars and current next-generation discovery efforts. Expert opinion: G-CSF has impacted the treatment and survival of patients with congenital neutropenias. For chemotherapy-associated neutropenia, cost effectiveness and impact on survival are still unclear. G-CSFs are expensive and require systemic administration. Market entry of new biosimilars, some with enhanced half-life profiles, will probably reduce cost and increase cost effectiveness. There is no evidence that marketed or late development biosimilars display effectiveness superior to current G-CSFs. Second-generation compounds that mimic the activity of G-CSF at its receptor, induce endogenous ligand(s) or offer adjunct activity have been reported and represent attractive G-CSF alternatives, but are in preclinical stages. A significant therapeutic advance will require reduced depth and duration of neutropenia compared to current G-CSFs.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 09/2013; · 4.74 Impact Factor