Cooperation of HECT-domain ubiquitin ligase hHYD and DNA topoisomerase II-binding protein for DNA damage response.
ABSTRACT Ubiquitin ligases define the substrate specificity of protein ubiquitination and subsequent proteosomal degradation. The catalytic sequence was first characterized in the C terminus of E6-associated protein (E6AP) and referred to as the HECT (homologous to E6AP C terminus) domain. The human homologue of the regulator of cell proliferation hyperplastic discs in Drosophila, designated hHYD, is a HECT-domain ubiquitin ligase. Here we show that hHYD provides a ubiquitin system for a cellular response to DNA damage. A yeast two-hybrid screen showed that DNA topoisomerase IIbeta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) interacted with hHYD. Endogenous hHYD bound the BRCA1 C-terminus domains of TopBP1 that are highlighted in DNA damage checkpoint proteins and cell cycle regulators. Using an in vitro reconstitution, specific E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating) enzymes (human UbcH4, UbcH5B, and UbcH5C) transferred ubiquitin molecules to hHYD, leading to the ubiquitination of TopBP1. TopBP1 was usually ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteosome, whereas X-irradiation diminished the ubiquitination of TopBP1 probably via the phosphorylation, resulting in the stable colocalization of up-regulated TopBP1 with gamma-H2AX nuclear foci in DNA breaks. These results demonstrated that hHYD coordinated TopBP1 in the DNA damage response.
Article: The N-end rule pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system in which N-terminal residues of short-lived proteins are recognized by recognition components (N-recognins) as essential components of degrons, called N-degrons. Known N-recognins in eukaryotes mediate protein ubiquitylation and selective proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. Substrates of N-recognins can be generated when normally embedded destabilizing residues are exposed at the N terminus by proteolytic cleavage. N-degrons can also be generated through modifications of posttranslationally exposed pro-N-degrons of otherwise stable proteins; such modifications include oxidation, arginylation, leucylation, phenylalanylation, and acetylation. Although there are variations in components, degrons, and hierarchical structures, the proteolytic systems based on generation and recognition of N-degrons have been observed in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes examined thus far. The N-end rule pathway regulates homeostasis of various physiological processes, in part, through interaction with small molecules. Here, we review the biochemical mechanisms, structures, physiological functions, and small-molecule-mediated regulation of the N-end rule pathway.Annual review of biochemistry 04/2012; 81:261-89. · 29.88 Impact Factor
Article: UBR5 Gene Mutation Is Associated with Familial Adult Myoclonic Epilepsy in a Japanese Family.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The causal gene(s) for familial adult myoclonic epilepsy (FAME) remains undetermined. To identify it, an exome analysis was performed for the proband in a Japanese FAME family. Of the 383 missense/nonsense variants examined, only c.5720G>A mutation (p.Arg1907His) in the UBR5 gene was found in all of the affected individuals in the family, but not in the nonaffected members. Such mutation was not found in any of the 85 healthy individuals in the same community nor in any of the 24 individuals of various ethnicities. The present study demonstrated an FAME-associated mutation in the UBR5 gene, which is located close to the reported locus linked to Japanese FAME families.ISRN neurology. 01/2012; 2012:508308.
Article: A whole-genome RNAi screen identifies an 8q22 gene cluster that inhibits death receptor-mediated apoptosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Deregulation of apoptosis is a common occurrence in cancer, for which emerging oncology therapeutic agents designed to engage this pathway are undergoing clinical trials. With the aim of uncovering strategies to activate apoptosis in cancer cells, we used a pooled shRNA screen to interrogate death receptor signaling. This screening approach identified 16 genes that modulate the sensitivity to ligand induced apoptosis, with several genes exhibiting frequent overexpression and/or copy number gain in cancer. Interestingly, two of the top hits, EDD1 and GRHL2, are found 50 kb apart on chromosome 8q22, a region that is frequently amplified in many cancers. By using a series of silencing and overexpression studies, we show that EDD1 and GRHL2 suppress death-receptor expression, and that EDD1 expression is elevated in breast, pancreas, and lung cancer cell lines resistant to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Supporting the relevance of EDD1 and GRHL2 as therapeutic candidates to engage apoptosis in cancer cells, silencing the expression of either gene sensitizes 8q22-amplified breast cancer cell lines to death receptor induced apoptosis. Our findings highlight a mechanism by which cancer cells may evade apoptosis, and therefore provide insight in the search for new targets and functional biomarkers for this pathway.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2011; 108(43):E943-51. · 9.68 Impact Factor