Solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma - Incidence, clinical-pathologic characteristics, molecular analysis, and biologic behavior
ABSTRACT Solid variant is a rare and poorly characterized variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study we analyzed 20 primary cases of the solid variant of papillary carcinoma found in a series of 756 papillary carcinomas operated at the Mayo Clinic between 1962 and 1989. The criteria for classification included predominantly (>70%) solid growth pattern of primary tumor, retention of cytologic features typical of papillary carcinoma, and absence of tumor necrosis. For each case of the solid variant, a control case of classical papillary carcinoma matched by age, sex, tumor size, and length of follow-up was selected. The follow-up ranged from 6 to 32 years. Two patients with the solid variant of papillary carcinoma (10%) died from disease 7 and 10 years after initial surgery, while another two patients (10%) are alive with lung metastases. In contrast, the control group had no cases with distant metastases or death from disease. Molecular analyses showed a similar prevalence of RET /PTC rearrangements in both groups. In conclusion, the solid variant of papillary carcinoma is associated with a slightly higher frequency of distant metastases and less favorable prognosis than classical papillary carcinoma. However, it should be distinguished from poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which has a reported lower survival rate compared with the solid variant of papillary carcinoma.
SourceAvailable from: Grace C H Yang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (SVPTC) comprises approximately 3% of thyroid cancers, and there are conflicting reports about its behavior in the literature. The cytology of SVPTC is limited to 3 single case reports, a review article, and a monograph. We present the first cytologic study of SVPTC.METHODS Fine-needle aspiration smears obtained with ultrasound guidance from 13 patients with histologically pure SVPTC were reviewed, and the cytologic features recorded. Ultrasound images were retrieved from radiology and were correlated with low-power histology images. Intratumor vascularity on Doppler imaging was correlated with cellularity in cytology samples.RESULTSThree cytomorphologic patterns of SVPTC were identified: cohesive, syncytial-type tissue fragments; microfollicles/trabeculae; and dyshesive single cells. All 3 SVPTCs in the first group were encapsulated without invasion. Two of 6 SVPTCs in the second group had a single lymph node metastasis; 4 were encapsulated, and 2 had pushing borders. Ultrasound images in the first and second SVPTC groups were similar, with the majority revealing a well defined, solid nodule with minimal intranodular vascularity. All 4 SVPTCs in the third group had infiltrative borders; and, with the exception of one 0.8-cm tumor, all had multiple lymph node metastases. Ultrasound in the third group revealed irregular borders. RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 mutations were found in 2 cases of the third group.CONCLUSIONSSVPTCs are heterogeneous tumors. The cohesive, syncytial tissue-fragment pattern can be recognized as SVPTC in smears and is associated with encapsulation and indolent behavior. The microfollicular/trabecular pattern is indistinguishable from that of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and has intermediate behavior. The dyshesive single-cell pattern correlates with infiltrative tumor growth and may not be unique to SVPTC. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society.Cancer Cytopathology 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/cncy.21504 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy in endocrine system, composed of four major types; papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and medullary thyroid carcinoma. The incidence of thyroid cancer, especially differentiated thyroid cancer, is increasing in developed countries. Growing body of studies on molecular pathogenesis in thyroid cancer provide clues for further research and diagnostic/therapeutic targets. The general pathological classifications and clinical features of follicular cell derived thyroid carcinomas are overviewed, and recent advances of genetic alterations are discussed in this review.
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ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer and constitutes more than 70% of thyroid malignancies. Although TNM staging is the most widely used parameter for determination of therapeutic plans, recent studies have suggested that different histopathologic variants of PTC can also have different clinical courses and patient prognoses. Sonographic criteria for PTC are well established and include a taller-than-wide shape, an irregular margin, microcalcifications, and marked hypoechogenicity. The role of sonography has expanded to enable the characterization of PTC variants based on their sonographic features. Tall cell and diffuse sclerosing variants appear to have more aggressive clinical courses with unfavorable prognoses, whereas the more recently described cribriform-morular and Warthin-like variants have relatively indolent clinical courses. The prognoses of patients with follicular, solid, columnar cell, and oncocytic variants are still controversial and may be similar to the prognosis of conventional PTC. Understanding the sonographic characteristics of PTC variants with clinicopathologic correlation may be helpful for suggesting an appropriate treatment plan. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 01/2015; 34(1):1-15. DOI:10.7863/ultra.34.1.1 · 1.53 Impact Factor