Congenital disorders of glycosylation: the rapidly growing tip of the iceberg.
ABSTRACT In addition to many other organs, the brain is affected in 10 of the 11 known congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation, mostly to a severe degree. Because a large number of enzymes, transporters and other proteins are involved in glycosylation (both N-linked and O-linked), it is expected that the great majority of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are yet to be identified. Many neurological patients with a CDG escape diagnosis for that reason, but also because existing screening methods fail to detect all patients with a known CDG. These disorders should be looked for in any patient, regardless of age, with an unexplained neurological disorder.
Article: The normal phenotype of Pmm1-deficient mice suggests that Pmm1 is not essential for normal mouse development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phosphomannomutases (PMMs) are crucial for the glycosylation of glycoproteins. In humans, two highly conserved PMMs exist: PMM1 and PMM2. In vitro both enzymes are able to convert mannose-6-phosphate (mannose-6-P) into mannose-1-P, the key starting compound for glycan biosynthesis. However, only mutations causing a deficiency in PMM2 cause hypoglycosylation, leading to the most frequent type of the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG): CDG-Ia. PMM1 is as yet not associated with any disease, and its physiological role has remained unclear. We generated a mouse deficient in Pmm1 activity and documented the expression pattern of murine Pmm1 to unravel its biological role. The expression pattern suggested an involvement of Pmm1 in (neural) development and endocrine regulation. Surprisingly, Pmm1 knockout mice were viable, developed normally, and did not reveal any obvious phenotypic alteration up to adulthood. The macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of all major organs, as well as animal behavior, appeared to be normal. Likewise, lectin histochemistry did not demonstrate an altered glycosylation pattern in tissues. It is especially striking that Pmm1, despite an almost complete overlap of its expression with Pmm2, e.g., in the developing brain, is apparently unable to compensate for deficient Pmm2 activity in CDG-Ia patients. Together, these data point to a (developmental) function independent of mannose-1-P synthesis, whereby the normal knockout phenotype, despite the stringent conservation in phylogeny, could be explained by a critical function under as-yet-unidentified challenge conditions.Molecular and Cellular Biology 09/2006; 26(15):5621-35. · 5.53 Impact Factor
Article: A novel mutation and first report of dilated cardiomyopathy in ALG6-CDG (CDG-Ic): a case report.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are an expanding group of inherited metabolic diseases with multisystem involvement. ALG6-CDG (CDGIc) is an endoplasmatic reticulum defect in N-glycan assembly. It is usually milder than PMM2-CDG (CDG-Ia) and so is its natural course. It is characterized by psychomotor retardation, seizures, ataxia, and hypotonia. In contrast to PMM2-CDG (CDGIa), there is no cerebellar hypoplasia. Cardiomyopathy has been reported in a few CDG types and in a number of patients with unexplained CDG. We report an 11 year old Saudi boy with severe psychomotor retardation, seizures, strabismus, inverted nipples, dilated cardiomyopathy, and a type 1 pattern of serum transferrin isoelectrofocusing. Phosphomannomutase and phosphomannose isomerase activities were normal in fibroblasts. Full gene sequencing of the ALG6 gene revealed a novel mutation namely c.482A>G (p.Y161C) and heterozygosity in the parents. This report highlights the importance to consider CDG in the differential diagnosis of unexplained cardiomyopathy.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2010; 5:7. · 5.83 Impact Factor