Intravascular devices (IVDs) are widely used in modern day health care. Unfortunately, their use is associated with substantial risk of bloodstream infection (BSI) and sepsis, with increased hospitalization and hospital mortality. IVDs are the most common cause of nosocomial BSI. The wider use of new methodologies for diagnosis of IVD-related infection should allow earlier and more focused therapy and, especially, improve the accuracy of surveillance. Of all nosocomial infections, IVD-related BSIs are most amendable to prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: background. The International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) was established in 15 developing countries to reduce infection rates in resource-limited hospitals by focusing on education and feedback of outcome surveillance (infection rates) and process surveillance (adherence to infection control measures). We report a time-sequence analysis of the effectiveness of this approach in reducing rates of central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and associated deaths in 86 intensive care units with a minimum of 6-month INICC membership. methods. Pooled CLABSI rates during the first 3 months (baseline) were compared with rates at 6-month intervals during the first 24 months in 53,719 patients (190,905 central line–days). Process surveillance results at baseline were compared with intervention period data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood stream infections originating from vascular catheters after extended use constitute a major problem in patient care. Ethanol 70% is an important component of cutaneous antiseptics and recent studies suggest that locking the catheter lumen with an ethanol solution (termed "ethanol lock") holds promise as novel technique to prevent infections caused by bacteria which gain access to the lumen of the catheter during clinical use. However, most catheter manufacturers have discouraged use of alcohol with their devices for fear of structural degradation. We report an in-depth investigation to quantify the effect of prolonged ethanol exposure on the mechanical properties of polyurethane vascular catheters. Our results support the wide use of 70% ethanol for prevention of bloodstream infections caused by intravascular devices in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outpatient home infusion therapy is increasing; however, little data exist on the outcomes of patients receiving care. The purpose of this study was to document the natural history of central venous catheters (CVCs) used in home infusion care to determine the rate and type of catheter complications.
Data from the Strategic HealthCare Programs National Database from April 1999 to September 2000 were analyzed. Primary study objectives were to identify (i) types of CVCs and principal diagnoses, (ii) type and rate of catheter complications, and (iii) outcomes in managing thrombotic catheter complications. Event rates were calculated per 1,000 catheter days; 50,470 patients representing 2.83 million catheter days met study criteria.
The rates of complications (per 1,000 catheter days) for the most common events were: catheter dysfunction (0.83 total; 0.6 nonthrombotic, 0.23 thrombotic), catheter site infections (0.26), and bloodstream infections (BSIs; 0.19). A total of 4,138 complication events were identified (event rate per 1,000 days: 1.5). The total rates of complications with each catheter type were: midline catheters (4.5), PICCs (2.0), nontunneled central catheters (1.1), tunneled catheters (1.0), and chest ports (0.52). Catheter dysfunction with loss of patency was the most common group of complications. Thrombotic occlusion was the principal cause of catheter dysfunction, occurring in 28% of patients in this group, typically within 7 days of catheter insertion. BSI was reported in 541 patients, generally more than 30 days after catheter insertion. Catheter thrombosis outcomes resulted in therapy interruption (43%), catheter replacement (29%), premature CVC removal (14%), unscheduled emergency room visits (9%), and/or hospitalizations (6%).
Catheter dysfunction is the most frequent complication of all CVCs in this population, almost twice that of infections. Outpatient home infusion catheter dysfunction results in delays to therapy, unscheduled hospitalizations, and need for device replacement.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 11/2002; 13(10):1009-16. DOI:10.1016/S1051-0443(07)61865-X · 2.41 Impact Factor
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