Association of awareness, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, and stage of dietary change with fruit and vegetable consumption: A national survey

Office of Communications, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Building 31, Room 10A10, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
American journal of health promotion: AJHP (Impact Factor: 2.37). 01/2001; 16(2):69-78.
Source: PubMed


To examine associations of awareness, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, and stage of change with consumption of fruits and vegetables.
Nationally representative, random digit dial survey conducted in 1997 with a response rate of 44.5%. Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed using regression analyses.
United States.
A total of 2605 adults who were 18 years and older.
Awareness of the "5 A Day for Better Health" program and its message, along with stage of change; taste preferences; self-efficacy; and perceived benefits, barriers, threats, social support, and norms related to fruit and vegetable consumption.
Awareness and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors explained 24% of the variance in fruit and vegetable consumption beyond the 9% explained by demographic characteristics. Knowledge of the 5 A Day message was associated with a 22% increase in fruit and vegetable consumption. Self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables and taste preferences (affect) were the factors most consistently and strongly associated with both higher consumption and higher likelihood of being in action or maintenance stages of change. Affect and perceived barriers were more strongly associated with increased vegetables and salad than fruit.
Dietary intervention programs to increase fruit and vegetable consumption should emphasize the 5 A Day message, increased self-efficacy, and ways to make vegetables more palatable and easily accessible. Understanding the factors that influence dietary choices should be used when designing dietary interventions.

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    • "Yet, it could be similarly applied to differences in awareness by race=ethnicity, as research has documented lower access and acceptability of various sources of health information by race= ethnicity (Beacom & Newman, 2010; Chou, Hunt, Beckjord, Moser, & Hesse, 2009). The relationship between knowledge and awareness of health benefits and health behaviors has been documented for alcohol (Kaskutas & Graves, 1994) and fruit and vegetable consumption (Van Duyn et al., 2001; Wolf, Lepore, Vandergrift, Basch, & Yaroch, 2009). Intervention and exercise behavior research report awareness of the benefits of physical activity on reduced cancer risk can increase motivation and engagement in this behavior (Courneya & Hellsten, 2001; Midtgaard et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: This national study examines differences between racial/ethnic groups on awareness of physical activity and reduced cancer risk and explores correlates of awareness including trust, demographic, and health characteristics within racial/ethnic groups. The 2007 Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS) provided data for this study. After exclusions, 6,809 adults were included in analyses. Awareness of physical activity in reduced cancer risk was the main outcome. Logistic regression models tested relationships. Non-Hispanic Blacks had a 0.71 (0.54,0.93) lower odds of being aware of physical activity in reduced cancer risk than non-Hispanic Whites. Current attempts to lose weight were associated with greater odds for awareness among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics (p < .01). Among non-Hispanic Blacks, trust in traditional and Internet media was associated with greater odds of awareness (p < .01). This study is the first national study to examine racial/ethnic disparities in awareness of physical activity and cancer risk. Comparisons between racial/ethnic groups found Black-White disparities in awareness. Variables associated with awareness within racial/ethnic groups identify potential subgroups to whom communication efforts to promote awareness may be targeted.
    Journal of Health Communication 12/2010; 15 Suppl 3(sup3):60-77. DOI:10.1080/10810730.2010.522694 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    • "Consumption frequency also had a significant positive effect on the intention to recommend functional foods. In previous studies, consumption frequency has usually been used as an indicator to categorize subjects [23,24,27] or dependent variables that were affected by predictors such as socio-economic, demographic, and psychological variables [18,30,31,32,46]. Our study found that consumption frequency mediated not only the relationship between risk perception and recommendation intention, but also the relationship between response efficacy and recommendation intention. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored the conceptual framework of dieticians' intentions to recommend functional food and the mediating role of consumption frequency. A web-based survey was designed using a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of Korean dieticians (N=233) responded to the questionnaire that included response efficacy, risk perception, consumption frequency, and recommendation intention for functional foods. A structural equation model was constructed to analyze the data. We found that response efficacy was positively related to frequency of consumption of functional foods and to recommendation intention. Consumption frequency also positively influenced recommendation intention. Risk perception had no direct influence on recommendation intention; however, the relationship was mediated completely by consumption frequency. Dieticians' consumption frequency and response efficacy were the crucial factors in recommending functional foods. Dieticians may perceive risks arising from the use of functional foods in general, but the perceived risks do not affect ratings describing dieticians' intentions to recommend them. The results also indicated that when dieticians more frequently consume functional foods, the expression of an intention to recommend functional foods may be controlled by the salience of past behaviors rather than by attitudes.
    Nutrition research and practice 02/2010; 4(1):75-81. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2010.4.1.75 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    • "Among studies focusing on determinants of behaviour, 12 studies used a multicomponent theoretical framework, i.e. measuring variables from several social cognitive theories (e.g. social cognitive theory, transtheoretical model, health belief model, social support theory, theory of reasoned action) [46-55,57,64], seven studies the Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB) or the related attitude-social influence-efficacy (ASE) [66] model [58-63], three used Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) [43,44,56] and one was based on the health belief model (HBM) [45]. Among the studies which focused on determinants of intention (7 studies), six used the TPB framework [58-60,62,63,65] and one used a multicomponent framework [50]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) plays a protective role against major diseases. Despite this protective role and the obesity pandemic context, populations in Western countries usually eat far less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. In order to increase the efficiency of interventions, they should be tailored to the most important determinants or mediators of FVI. The objective was to systematically review social cognitive theory-based studies of FVI and to identify its main psychosocial determinants. Published papers were systematically sought using Current Contents (2007-2009) and Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Proquest and Thesis, as well as Cinhal (1980-2009). Additional studies were identified by a manual search in the bibliographies. Search terms included fruit, vegetable, behaviour, intention, as well as names of specific theories. Only studies predicting FVI or intention to eat fruits and vegetables in the general population and using a social cognitive theory were included. Independent extraction of information was carried out by two persons using predefined data fields, including study quality criteria. A total of 23 studies were identified and included, 15 studying only the determinants of FVI, seven studying the determinants of FVI and intention and one studying only the determinants of intention. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. The random-effect R2 observed for the prediction of FVI was 0.23 and it was 0.34 for the prediction of intention. Multicomponent theoretical frameworks and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) were most often used. A number of methodological moderators influenced the efficacy of prediction of FVI. The most consistent variables predicting behaviour were habit, motivation and goals, beliefs about capabilities, knowledge and taste; those explaining intention were beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences and perceived social influences. Our results suggest that the TPB and social cognitive theory (SCT) are the preferable social cognitive theories to predict behaviour and TPB to explain intention. Efficacy of prediction was nonetheless negatively affected by methodological factors such as the study design and the quality of psychosocial and behavioural measures.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 02/2010; 7(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-7-12 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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