Article

The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid induces differentiation of human breast cancer cells.

Program in Cell Biology, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 01/2002; 61(23):8492-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Histone deacetylase (HDACs) regulate histone acetylation by catalyzing the removal of acetyl groups on the NH(2)-terminal lysine residues of the core nucleosomal histones. Modulation of the acetylation status of core histones is involved in the regulation of the transcriptional activity of certain genes. HDAC activity is generally associated with transcriptional repression. Aberrant recruitment of HDAC activity has been associated with the development of certain human cancers. We have developed a class of HDAC inhibitors, such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), that were initially identified based on their ability to induce differentiation of cultured murine erythroleukemia cells. Additional studies have demonstrated that SAHA inhibits the growth of tumors in rodents. In this study we have examined the effects of SAHA on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We found that SAHA causes the inhibition of proliferation, accumulation of cells in a dose-dependent manner in G(1) then G(2)-M phase of the cell cycle, and induction of milk fat globule protein, milk fat membrane globule protein, and lipid droplets. Growth inhibition was associated with morphological changes including the flattening and enlargement of the cytoplasm, and a decrease in the nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio. Withdrawal of SAHA led to reentry of cells into the cell cycle and reversal to a less differentiated phenotype. SAHA induced differentiation in the estrogen receptor-negative cell line SKBr-3 and the retinoblastoma-negative cell line MDA-468. We propose that SAHA has profound antiproliferative activity by causing these cells to undergo cell cycle arrest and differentiation that is dependent on the presence of SAHA. SAHA and other HDAC inhibitors are currently in Phase I clinical trials. These findings may impact the clinical use of these drugs.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Neal Rosen, Apr 22, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
73 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breast carcinoma is currently considered as a group of diseases, differing not only in histopathologic phenotype, as indicated by histologic type and grade, but also in their protein, genetic and epigenetic molecular profile. The standard of care indicates that the core information for patient management includes data on Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PgR) and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2), while there is an emerging role for the proliferation marker Ki67. These indices can be provided even in low resource settings and are indispensable for prognostication and therapeutic patient management. With the progress in molecular and translational research, there is a growing body of information on the molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma and their significance, and multigene signature assays are used to dictate prognosis and guide therapeutics in high resource settings. In addition, several cellular pathways involved in tumor growth and spread are dissected and targeted in clinical trials. Among these are the p53, RB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Ras/MAPK pathways, alterations associated with genetic instability and epigenetic alterations including histone methylation and acetylation, DNA methylation and microRNAs expression. The tumor immune microenvironment, including the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is attracting significant research interest. This review summarizes the mechanisms of function of the above factors in breast tumorigenesis with emphasis on their prognostic and predictive value and their use as therapeutic targets.
    Current molecular pharmacology 01/2015; 7(1):4-21. DOI:10.2174/187446720701150105170830
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many different approaches have been developed to improve the efficiency of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), one of which is to modify histone acetylation levels using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as trichostatin A (TSA). In the present study, we examined the effect of TSA on in vitro development of porcine embryos derived from SCNT. We found that TSA treatment (50 nM) for 24 h following oocyte activation improved blastocyst formation rates (to 22.0%) compared with 8.9% in the non-treatment group and total cell number of the blastocysts for determining embryo quality also increased significantly (). Changes in histone acetylation levels as a result of TSA treatment were examined using indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy scanning. Results showed that the histone acetylation level in TSA-treated embryos was higher than that in controls at both acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9) and acetylated histone H4 lysine 12 (AcH4K12). Next, we compared the expression patterns of seven genes (OCT4, ID1; the pluripotent genes, H19, NNAT, PEG1; the imprinting genes, cytokeratin 8 and 18; the trophoblast marker genes). The SCNT blastocysts both with and without TSA treatment showed lower levels of OCT4, ID1, cytokeratin 8 and 18 than those of the in vivo blastocysts. In the case of the imprinting genes H19 and NNAT, except PEG1, the SCNT blastocysts both with and without TSA treatment showed higher levels than those of the in vivo blastocysts. Although the gene expression patterns between cloned blastocysts and their in vivo counterparts were different regardless of TSA treatment, it appears that several genes in NT blastocysts after TSA treatment showed a slight tendency toward expression patterns of in vivo blastocysts. Our results suggest that TSA treatment may improve preimplantation porcine embryo development following SCNT.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 12/2013; 26(12). DOI:10.5713/ajas.2013.13029 · 0.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen (Tam) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that remains one of the major drugs used in the hormonotherapy of breast cancer (BC). In addition to its SERM activity, we recently showed that the oxidative metabolism of cholesterol plays a role in its anticancer pharmacology. We established that these effects were not regulated by the ER but by the microsomal antiestrogen binding site/cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase complex (AEBS/ChEH). The present study aimed to identify the oxysterols that are produced under Tam treatment and to define their mechanisms of action. Tam and PBPE (a selective AEBS/ChEH ligand) stimulated the production and the accumulation of 5,6α-epoxy-cholesterol (5,6α-EC), 5,6α-epoxy-cholesterol-3β-sulfate (5,6-ECS), 5,6β-epoxy-cholesterol (5,6β-EC) in MCF-7 cells through a ROS-dependent mechanism, by inhibiting ChEH and SULT2B1b, the enzyme that sulfates 5,6α-EC. We showed that only 5,6α-EC was responsible for the induction of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis by Tam and PBPE, through the modulation of the oxysterol receptor LXRβ. The cytotoxicity mediated by Tam and PBPE was triggered by 5,6β-EC through an LXRβ-independent route and by 5,6-ECS through an LXRβ-dependent mechanism. The importance of SULT2B1b was confirmed by its ectopic expression in the SULT2B1b(-) MDA-MB-231 cells, which became sensitive to 5,6α-EC, Tam or PBPE at a comparable level to MCF-7 cells. This study established that 5,6-EC metabolites contribute to the anticancer pharmacology of Tam and highlights a novel signaling pathway that points to a rationale for re-sensitizing BC cells to Tam and AEBS/ChEH ligands.
    Biochemical pharmacology 03/2013; 86(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2013.02.031 · 4.65 Impact Factor