Evidence of oxidative damage in Alzheimer's disease brain: central role for amyloid beta-peptide.
ABSTRACT Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) is heavily deposited in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Free-radical oxidative stress, particularly of neuronal lipids, proteins and DNA, is extensive in those AD brain areas in which Abeta is abundant. Recent research suggests that these observations might be linked, and it is postulated that Abeta-induced oxidative stress leads to neurodegeneration in AD brain. Consonant with this postulate, Abeta leads to neuronal lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA oxidation by means that are inhibited by free-radical antioxidants. Here, we summarize current research on phospholipid peroxidation, as well as protein and DNA oxidation, in AD brain, and discuss the potential role of Abeta in this oxidative stress.
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ABSTRACT: Beta-amyloid is one of the most significant features of Alzheimer's disease, and has been considered to play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration through an unknown mechanism. However, it has been noted that beta-amyloid accumulation is associated with markers of oxidative stress including protein oxidation (Smith et al., 1997), lipid peroxidation (Mark et al., 1997; Sayre et al., 1997), advanced glycation end products (Smith et al., 1994), and oxidation of nucleic acids (Nunomura et al., 1999). Furthermore, studies from cultured cells have shown that beta-amyloid leads to an increase in hydrogen peroxide levels (Behl et al., 1994), and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (Harris et al., 1995). Taken together, this evidence supports the idea that beta-amyloid plays a key role in oxidative stress-evoked neuropathology. In this study, we examined the induction of oxidative stress in response to amyloid load in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The mice carrying mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilins-1 (Goate et al., 1991; Hardy, 1997), develops beta-amyloid deposits at 10-12 weeks of age and show several features of the human disease (Holcomb et al., 1998; Matsuoka et al., 2001; McGowan et al., 1999; Takeuchi et al., 2000; Wong et al., 1999). Both 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (protein and lipid oxidative stress markers, respectively) associate strongly with fibrillar beta-amyloid, but not with diffuse (thioflavine S negative) beta-amyloid, and the levels increase in relation to the age-associated increase in fibrillar amyloid load.From these data we suggest that fibrillar beta-amyloid is associated with oxidative damage which may influence disease progression in the Alzheimer's disease brain.Neuroscience 02/2001; 104(3):609-13. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glutamate transporters are involved in the maintenance of synaptic glutamate concentrations. Because of its potential neurotoxicity, clearance of glutamate from the synaptic cleft may be critical for neuronal survival. Inhibition of glutamate uptake from the synapse has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, glutamate uptake is inhibited in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the mechanism of decreased transporter activity is unknown. Oxidative damage in brain is implicated in models of neurodegeneration, as well as in AD. Glutamate transporters are inhibited by oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Therefore, we have investigated a possible connection between the oxidative damage and the decreased glutamate uptake known to occur in AD brain. Western blots of immunoprecipitated HNE-immunoreactive proteins from the inferior parietal lobule of AD and control brains suggest that HNE is conjugated to GLT-1 to a greater extent in the AD brain. A similar analysis of beta amyloid (Abeta)-treated synaptosomes shows for the first time that Abeta1-42 also increases HNE conjugation to the glutamate transporter. Together, our data provide a possible link between the oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in AD, and supports the role of excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Furthermore, our data suggests that Abeta may be a possible causative agent in this cascade.Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2001; 78(2):413-6. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative damage to DNA may play a role in both normal aging and in neurodegenerative diseases. We examined whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with increased oxidative damage to nDNA and mtDNA in postmortem brain tissue. We measured the oxidized nucleoside, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG), in DNA isolated from three regions of cerebral cortex and cerebellum in 13 AD and 13 age-matched controls. There was a significant threefold increase in the amount of OH8dG in mtDNA in parietal cortex of AD patients compared with controls. In the entire group of samples there was a small significant increase in oxidative damage to nDNA and a highly significant threefold increase in oxidative damage to mtDNA in AD compared with age-matched controls. These results confirm that mitochondrial DNA is particularly sensitive to oxidative damage, and they show that there is increased oxidative damage to DNA in AD, which may contribute to the neurodegenerative process.Annals of Neurology 12/1994; 36(5):747-51. · 11.19 Impact Factor