Coagulation blockade prevents sepsis-induced respiratory and renal failure in baboons.
ABSTRACT Sepsis-induced tissue factor (TF) expression activates coagulation in the lung and leads to a procoagulant environment, which results in fibrin deposition and potentiates inflammation. We hypothesized that preventing initiation of coagulation at TF-Factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex would block fibrin deposition and control inflammation in sepsis, thereby limiting acute lung injury (ALI) and other organ damage in baboons. A model of ALI was used in which adult baboons were primed with killed Escherichia coli (1 x 10(9) CFU/kg), and bacteremic sepsis was induced 12 h later by infusion of live E. coli at 1 x 10(10) CFU/kg. Animals in the treatment group were given a competitive inhibitor of TF, site-inactivated FVIIa (FVIIai), intravenously at the time of the infusion of live bacteria and monitored physiologically for another 36 h. FVIIai dramatically protected gas exchange and lung compliance, prevented lung edema and pulmonary hypertension, and preserved renal function relative to vehicle (all p < 0.05). Treatment attenuated sepsis-induced fibrinogen depletion (p < 0.01) and decreased systemic proinflammatory cytokine responses, for example, interleukin 6 (p < 0.01). The protective effects of TF blockade in sepsis-induced ALI were confirmed by using tissue factor pathway inhibitor. The results show that TF-FVIIa complex contributes to organ injury in septic primates in part through selective stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine release and fibrin deposition.
Article: A clinical evaluation committee assessment of recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (tifacogin) in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this analysis was to determine the potential efficacy of recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (tifacogin) in a subpopulation of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from a phase III study of severe sepsis. A retrospective review of patients with suspected pneumonia was conducted by an independent clinical evaluation committee (CEC) blinded to treatment assignment. The CEC reanalyzed data from patients enrolled in an international multicenter clinical trial of sepsis who had a diagnosis of pneumonia as the probable source of sepsis. The primary efficacy measure was all-cause 28-day mortality. Of 847 patients identified on case report forms with a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, 780 (92%) were confirmed by the CEC to have pneumonia. Of confirmed pneumonia cases, 496 (63.6%) met the definition for CAP. In the CEC CAP population, the mortality rates of the tifacogin and placebo groups were 70/251 (27.9%) and 80/245 (32.7%), respectively. The strongest signals were seen in patients with CAP not receiving concomitant heparin, having microbiologically confirmed infection, or having the combination of documented infection and no heparin. The reduction in mortality in this narrowly defined subgroup when treated with tifacogin compared with placebo was statistically significant (17/58 [29.3%] with tifacogin and 28/54 [51.9%] with placebo; unadjusted P value of less than 0.02). Tifacogin administration did not significantly reduce mortality in any severe CAP patient. Exploratory analyses showed an improved survival in patients who did not receive concomitant heparin with microbiologically confirmed infections. These data support the rationale of an ongoing phase III study exploring the potential benefit of tifacogin in severe CAP. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00084071.Critical care (London, England) 04/2009; 13(2):R36. · 4.61 Impact Factor
Article: Systemic versus localized coagulation activation contributing to organ failure in critically ill patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the pathogenesis of sepsis, inflammation and coagulation play a pivotal role. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between these two systems, whereby inflammation not only leads to activation of coagulation but coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity. The intricate relationship between inflammation and coagulation may not only be relevant for vascular atherothrombotic disease in general but has in certain clinical settings considerable consequences, for example in the pathogenesis of microvascular failure and subsequent multiple organ failure, as a result of severe infection and the associated systemic inflammatory response. Molecular pathways that contribute to inflammation-induced activation of coagulation have been precisely identified. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators are capable of activating the coagulation system and downregulating important physiological anticoagulant pathways. Activation of the coagulation system and ensuing thrombin generation is dependent on an interleukin-6-induced expression of tissue factor on activated mononuclear cells and endothelial cells and is insufficiently counteracted by physiological anticoagulant mechanisms and endogenous fibrinolysis. Interestingly, apart from the overall systemic responses, a differential local response in various vascular beds related to specific organs may occur.Seminars in Immunopathology 07/2011; 34(1):167-79. · 6.27 Impact Factor
Article: Relative Tissue Factor Deficiency Attenuates Ventilator-Induced Coagulopathy but Does Not Protect against Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Preventing tissue-factor-(TF-) mediated systemic coagulopathy improves outcome in models of sepsis. Preventing TF-mediated pulmonary coagulopathy could attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We investigated the effect of relative TF deficiency on pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation in a murine model of VILI. Heterozygous TF knockout (TF(+/-)) mice and their wild-type (TF(+/+)) littermates were sedated (controls) or sedated, tracheotomized, and mechanically ventilated with either low or high tidal volumes for 5 hours. Mechanical ventilation resulted in pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation, with more injury after mechanical ventilation with higher tidal volumes. Compared with TF(+/+) mice, TF(+/-) mice demonstrated significantly lower pulmonary thrombin-antithrombin complex levels in both ventilation groups. There were, however, no differences in lung wet-to-dry ratio, BALF total protein levels, neutrophil influx, and lung histopathology scores between TF(+/-) and TF(+/+) mice. Notably, pulmonary levels of cytokines were significantly higher in TF(+/-) as compared to TF(+/+) mice. Systemic levels of cytokines were not altered by the relative absence of TF. TF deficiency is associated with decreased pulmonary coagulation independent of the ventilation strategy. However, relative TF deficiency does not reduce VILI and actually results in higher pulmonary levels of inflammatory mediators.Critical care research and practice 01/2012; 2012:130410.