Dominant thermodynamic role of the third independent receptor binding site in the receptor-associated protein RAP.
ABSTRACT The 39 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) is a three-domain escort protein in the secretory pathway for several members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family of endocytic receptors, including the LDLR-related protein (LRP). The minimal functional unit of LRP required for efficient binding to RAP is composed of complement-type repeat (CR)-domain pairs, located in clusters on the extracellular part of LRP. Here we investigate the binding of full-length RAP and isolated RAP domains 1-3 to an ubiquitin-fused CR-domain pair consisting of the fifth and sixth CR domains of LRP (U-CR56). As shown by isothermal titration calorimetric analysis of simple RAP domains as well as adjoined RAP domains, all three RAP domains bind to this CR-domain pair in a noncooperative way. The binding of U-CR56 to RAP domains 1 and 2 is (at room temperature) enthalpically driven with an entropy penalty (K(D) = 2.77 x 10(-6) M and 1.85 x 10(-5) M, respectively), whereas RAP domain 3 binds with a substantially lower enthalpy, but is favored due to a positive entropic contribution (K(D) = 1.71 x 10(-7) M). The heat capacity change for complex formation between RAP domain 1 and the CR-domain pair is -1.65 kJ K(-1) mol(-1). There is an indication of a conformational change in RAP domain 3 upon binding in the surface plasmon resonance analysis of the interaction. The different mechanisms of binding to RAP domains 1 and 3 are further substantiated by the different effects on binding of mutations of the Asp and Trp residues in the LRP CR5 or CR6 domains, which are important for the recognition of several ligands.
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ABSTRACT: The interactions of beta2 glycoprotein I (B2GPI) with the receptors of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family are implicated in the clearance of negatively charged phospholipids and apoptotic cells and, in the presence of autoimmune anti-B2GPI antibodies, in cell activation, which might play a role in the pathology of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The ligand-binding domains of the lipoprotein receptors consist of multiple homologous LA modules connected by flexible linkers. In this study, we investigated at the atomic level the features of the LA modules required for binding to B2GPI. To compare the binding interface in B2GPI/LA complex to that observed in the high-resolution co-crystal structure of the receptor associated protein (RAP) with a pair of LA modules 3 and 4 from the LDLR, we used LA4 in our studies. Using solution NMR spectroscopy, we found that LA4 interacts with B2GPI and the binding site for B2GPI on the (15)N-labeled LA4 is formed by the calcium coordinating residues of the LA module. We built a model for the complex between domain V of B2GPI (B2GPI-DV) and LA4 without introducing any experimentally derived constraints into the docking procedure. Our model, which is in the agreement with the NMR data, suggests that the binding interface of B2GPI for the lipoprotein receptors is centered at three lysine residues of B2GPI-DV, Lys 308, Lys 282, and Lys317.Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 08/2009; 77(4):940-9. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clusters of complement-type ligand-binding repeats (CRs) in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family are thought to mediate the interactions with their various ligands. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a key ligand for cholesterol homeostasis, has been shown to interact with LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP) through these clusters. The segment comprising the receptor-binding portion of ApoE (residues 130-149) has been found to have a weak affinity for isolated CRs. We have fused this region of ApoE to a high-affinity CR from LRP (CR17) for structural elucidation of the complex. The interface reveals a motif that has previously been observed in CR domains with other binding partners, but with several novel features. Comparison to free CR17 reveals that very few structural changes result from this binding event, but significant changes in intrinsic dynamics are observed upon binding. NMR perturbation experiments suggest that this interface may be similar to several other ligand interactions with LDLRs.Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2010; 398(2):306-19. · 4.00 Impact Factor