Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the visual system.
ABSTRACT Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is a technique useful for non-invasive mapping of brain function, is well suited for studying the visual system. This review highlights current clinical applications and research studies involving patients with visual deficits. Relevant reports regarding the investigation of the brain's role in visual processing and some newer fMRI techniques are also reviewed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been used for presurgical mapping of visual cortex in patients with brain lesions and for studying patients with amblyopia, optic neuritis, and residual vision in homonymous hemianopia. Retinotopic borders, motion processing, and visual attention have been the topics of several fMRI studies. These reports suggest that fMRI can be useful in clinical and research studies in patients with visual deficits.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess activation patterns and the hemodynamic response to optokinetic stimulation in migraine with aura patients compared with controls. It has been proposed that altered visual motion processing in striate and extrastriate visual areas is present in migraine patients and might play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Besides activating a large visual network, optokinetic stimulation in particular has been shown to provoke symptoms associated with migraine. In this study, we examined the response to visual stimulation in 18 migraine with aura patients compared with 18 healthy controls by using functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional transcranial Doppler, thereby assessing the activation pattern of the visual areas (V1-V5) as well as the vasomotor reactivity of the posterior cerebral artery. For stimulation, we used a vertically rotating optokinetic drum with complex colored figures. Group analysis of migraineurs with aura vs controls revealed different activation patterns in functional magnetic resonance imaging: attenuation of the physiological right lateralization with a significantly increased activation in the left V5 complex, the left area V3, and the right V5 complex. Analysis of the visually evoked flow response of the cerebral blood flow velocity in the posterior cerebral artery showed a larger side-difference of the offset latency (P < .05) and a reduced steepness of the decreasing slope on the left side (P < .05). Combining examinations with a good structural (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and temporal (functional transcranial Doppler) resolution is a novel approach to migraine pathophysiology. Our findings of an altered pattern of activation by optokinetic visual stimulation with hyperresponsiveness in visual areas activated by motion perception (V5 and V3) further strengthen the concept of an interictal motion-processing deficit in migraine. This is complemented by the slower restitution of the visually evoked flow response after stimulus offset in migraine with aura patients.Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 08/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasability and the potential usefulness of functional MRI (fMRI) for the evaluation of brain functions after severe brain injury, when compared to a multimodal approach (evoked potentials [EP] and Positron Emission Tomography [PET] examinations). Seven patients (mean age: 49 years [23-73], three males, four females) presenting with coma after acute severe brain injuries underwent fMRI (auditive, visual, somesthesic), (18)F-FDG PET and EP (auditive, visual, somesthesic) within a 3-day period of time in a mean of 120 days after initial brain injury. fMRI activations in somesthesic, visual and auditive cortical areas were compared to EP (28 possible comparisons) and to the metabolic activity on PET examination in the same anatomical areas (21 possible comparisons). In case of availability, results were concordant between fMRI and PET in 10 comparisons but not in one, and between fMRI and EP in 11 comparisons but not in four. In many patients, there is a good concordance between fMRI and brain functions suggested by EP and metabolic activity demonstrated with PET. In few others, fMRI can be integrated in the early evaluation of brain functions to further augment our capacity for a proper evaluation of brain functions in critically ill patients.Journal of Neuroradiology 09/2009; 37(3):159-66. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The primary taste cortex is located in the insula. However, exactly where in the insula the human primary taste cortex is located remains a controversial issue. Human neuroimaging studies have shown prominent variation concerning the location of taste-responsive activation within the insula. A standard protocol for gustatory testing in neuroimaging studies has not been developed, which might underlie such variations. In order to localize the primary taste cortex in an fMRI experiment, we used a taste delivery system to suppress non-taste stimuli and psychological effects. Then, we compared brain response to taste solution during a passive tasting task condition and a taste quality identification task condition to verify whether this cognitive task affected the location of taste-responsive activation within the insula. To examine which part of insula is the primary taste area, we performed dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to verify the neural network of the taste coding-related region and random-effects Bayesian model selection (BMS) at the family level to reveal the optimal input region. Passive tasting resulted in activation of the right middle insula (MI), and the most favorable model selected by DCM analysis showed that taste effect directly influenced the MI. Additionally, BMS results at the family level suggested that the taste inputs entered into the MI. Taken together, our results suggest that the human primary taste cortex is located in the MI.Experimental Brain Research 04/2013; 227(2). · 2.17 Impact Factor