Benefits and risks of self medication.
ABSTRACT Self medication is becoming an increasingly important area within healthcare. It moves patients towards greater independence in making decisions about management of minor illnesses, thereby promoting empowerment. Self medication also has advantages for healthcare systems as it facilitates better use of clinical skills, increases access to medication and may contribute to reducing prescribed drug costs associated with publicly funded health programmes. However, self medication is associated with risks such as misdiagnosis, use of excessive drug dosage, prolonged duration of use, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The latter may be particularly problematic in the elderly. Monitoring systems, a partnership between patients, physicians and pharmacists and the provision of education and information to all concerned on safe self medication, are proposed strategies for maximising benefit and minimising risk.
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ABSTRACT: Background Gathering sufficient information when handling self-medication requests in community pharmacies is an important factor in assisting patients to obtain appropriate health outcomes. Common types of information usually gathered include patient identity, signs and symptoms, action taken, medical history, and current medications being used. The aims of the study were (1) to describe the types and amount of information gathered by Eastern Indonesian community pharmacy staff when handling self-medication requests, and (2) to identify factors associated with the reported amount of information gathered.Methods Patient simulation and pharmacy staff interviews were used. First, patient simulation was conducted using 2 cough scenarios and 1 diarrhoea scenario. Second, a structured interview was administered to eligible pharmacy staff in the setting. The types and amount of information gathered during patient simulation encounters and reported during pharmacy staff interviews were noted. A regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the amount of information gathered from the interview data.ResultsThe most frequent types of information gathered in patient simulation encounters were the nature of symptoms (88% in one of the cough scenarios) and patient identity (96% in the diarrhoea scenario). Other types of information were gathered in <40% of encounters in each scenario. From the pharmacy staff interviews, >90% of the 173 interviewees reported that they gathered information on patient identity, nature of symptoms, and associated symptoms. Information on medical history and medication used was gathered by 20% and 26% respectively of the 173 interviewees. The majority of pharmacy staff asked 0 to 2 questions in the patient simulation encounters compared to 5 questions pharmacy staff reported as their usual practice during the interviews. Being qualified as a pharmacist or a pharmacy technician was one of the factors positively associated with the reported amount of information gathered.Conclusion There were deficits in the types of information gathered when pharmacy staff handling self-medication requests. Having a pharmacy educational background and additional work experience in the pharmacy was positively associated with the reported amount of information gathered. There could be other factors contributing to shortcomings in the actual practice which need to be explored.BMC Health Services Research 01/2015; 15(1):8. DOI:10.1186/s12913-014-0670-6 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the prevalence and predictors of self-medication with analgesics among senior medical students and interns in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 504 participants in 2013. A multistage stratified random sampling was used. A confidential, anonymous & self-administered questionnaire was used to collect personal & socio-demographic data. Data about self-medication and self-medication with analgesics during the preceding 6 months were also inquired. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were done by SPSS version 18 & Epi-Info. Results: During the 6 months preceding the study, 75.2% and 55.4% of participants used self -medication & analgesic self-medication, respectively. The first predictor of utilization of analgesic self-medication was living with family (aOR; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.22-3.14), followed by age >21 years & non- professional jobs of fathers. Conclusion: Alarming high rates of self medication and self-medication with analgesics were observed among medical students and interns. Self-medication needs improvement through educational, regulatory and managerial strategies. KEY WORDS: Analgesics, Self-medication, Medical students.Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Online 01/2015; 31(1):14-18. DOI:10.12669/pjms.311.6526 · 0.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this cross-sectional survey were to document the prevalence, the determinants, and the reasons of oral medication use without the prescription of a physician among a random sample of 672 parents of students attending randomly selected public schools in Italy. A total of 69.2% practiced self-medication at least once. The odds of having performed a self-medication were higher in females, in younger population, and in those who have had a health problem in the preceding year and were lower in respondents with a middle or lower school level of education. Among those reporting experience of self-medication, 53.4% have practiced at least once in the last year and this was more likely for those who have had a health problem. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were more frequently used without a prescription in the last year. Two-thirds inappropriately self-medicated in the last year at least once. Of those who did not report a self-medication, 13.1% were willing to practice it. Females were more willing and those with a secondary school level of education less willing to practice self-medication. The frequency of oral self-medication was quite high and in most cases inappropriate with a potential impact on the health status and educative programs are needed.BioMed Research International 01/2015; 2015:580650. DOI:10.1155/2015/580650 · 2.71 Impact Factor