Isolated neurosarcoidosis - MR findings and pathologic correlation.
ABSTRACT Neurosarcoidosis is a diagnostic challenge, especially if systemic symptoms are absent. We present a 49-year-old woman with isolated neurosarcoidosis. The main symptom was loss of vision in the left eye. Brain MR imaging showed 6 high-signal white matter lesions frontotemporally on proton density and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images. Coronal fat-saturated turbo FLAIR images of the orbits showed a swollen left optic nerve with increased signal intensity, which finding has not been previously published in sarcoid optic neuropathy. A control MR examination showed meningeal enhancement of the left optic nerve and leptomeningeal enhancing lesions around the brain stem. Spinal MR revealed leptomeningeal enhancement throughout the spinal cord and asymptomatic enhancing cauda equina lesions, mimicking subarachnoid tumour seeding, and an enhancing nerve root mass at Th12/L1. Biopsy of the latter lesion revealed non-caseating granulomas consistent with sarcoidosis.
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ABSTRACT: : Neurosarcoidosis occurs in the central or peripheral nervous system and is usually associated with other sarcoidosis organ involvement. However, when sarcoidosis develops exclusively in the nervous system, its diagnosis is problematic. : Retrospective analysis of patients who were histologically diagnosed with neurosarcoidosis without other organ involvement (isolated neurosarcoidosis) at Medical University of South Carolina and Allegheny General Hospital. For comparison, we also collected data from neurosarcoidosis patients with histologic evidence in an extraneural organ (systemic neurosarcoidosis). : Ninety-one cases of neurosarcoidosis were identified with 10 patients having isolated neurosarcoidosis. Common clinical manifestations of the isolated neurosarcoidosis patients were headache (9), paresthesia (5), and cranial neuropathies (4). All isolated neurosarcoidosis patients underwent a biopsy from the central nervous system. The prebiopsy impression included lymphoma (4), tumor (2), and sarcoidosis (2). In all patients, no extranueral sarcoidosis developed during a relatively long follow-up period (mean 58 mo). Compared with the systemic neurosarcoidosis cohort (60), isolated neurosarcoidosis patients had similar demographics and neurological manifestations with a few exceptions including a more common frequency of headache, hemiparesis, and radiculopathy, leptomeningeal involvement on brain MRI, increased cell count in cerebrospinal fluid, and a more favorable clinical outcome (P<0.05). The duration of follow-up and the number of studies performed to evaluate patients for extraneural sarcoidosis were similar in the 2 cohorts. : The clinical and radiologic features of isolated neurosarcoidosis are similar to those of systemic neurosarcoidosis with a few exceptions. The diagnosis of isolated neurosarcoidosis is problematic and often not considered before biopsy of neural tissue.The Neurologist 11/2012; 18(6):373-7. · 1.08 Impact Factor
- Journal of NeuroVirology 04/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging provides high contrast between hyperintense lesions and normal tissue. Hyperintense structures in convexity sulci are commonly linked to abnormal cerebrospinal fluid composition, whether blood, protein, or infection. A patient with hemispheric transient ischemic attacks from severe carotid stenosis had hyperintense convexity sulci on FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging, interpreted as possible prior hemorrhage, making the patient ineligible for carotid stent reconstruction. Retrospective analysis revealed that hyperintense sulci were dilated leptomeningeal collaterals. In severe arterial disease causing cerebral hypoperfusion, dilated leptomeningeal vessels should be considered a cause for serpiginous hyperintense structures on FLAIR imaging, similar to the "ivy sign" described in moya-moya patients.Clinical imaging 01/2014; · 0.73 Impact Factor