Isolated neurosarcoidosis - MR findings and pathologic correlation: A case report
ABSTRACT Neurosarcoidosis is a diagnostic challenge, especially if systemic symptoms are absent. We present a 49-year-old woman with isolated neurosarcoidosis. The main symptom was loss of vision in the left eye. Brain MR imaging showed 6 high-signal white matter lesions frontotemporally on proton density and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images. Coronal fat-saturated turbo FLAIR images of the orbits showed a swollen left optic nerve with increased signal intensity, which finding has not been previously published in sarcoid optic neuropathy. A control MR examination showed meningeal enhancement of the left optic nerve and leptomeningeal enhancing lesions around the brain stem. Spinal MR revealed leptomeningeal enhancement throughout the spinal cord and asymptomatic enhancing cauda equina lesions, mimicking subarachnoid tumour seeding, and an enhancing nerve root mass at Th12/L1. Biopsy of the latter lesion revealed non-caseating granulomas consistent with sarcoidosis.
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ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) constitutes an important neurologic emergency. Some authors have suggested that fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging can detect SAH that may not be apparent on CT scans but may be revealed by lumbar puncture. We sought to determine how often FLAIR MR imaging findings are positive for SAH in cases with negative CT findings and positive lumbar puncture results. The CT scans and FLAIR MR images of all patients with suspected SAH during a 3-year interval (2000-2002) were retrospectively reviewed by a blinded reader. Among these cases, we identified 12 with CT findings that were negative for SAH, lumbar puncture results that were positive for SAH, and FLAIR MR imaging findings that were available for review. Eleven of the 12 patients had undergone FLAIR MR imaging within 2 days of CT and lumbar puncture. The 12 patients with negative CT findings were comprised of six male and six female patients with an age range of 7 to 69 years. We evaluated the true and false negative and positive FLAIR MR imaging findings for SAH by using the lumbar puncture results as the gold standard. The FLAIR MR imaging findings of 12 additional patients without SAH (as revealed by lumbar puncture) were used as control data for a blinded reading. For all 12 control cases without SAH, the FLAIR MR imaging findings were interpreted correctly. Of the 12 cases that had positive lumbar puncture results but false-negative CT findings for SAH, FLAIR MR imaging findings were true-positive in only two cases and were false-negative in 10. One of the two true-positive cases had the highest concentration of RBC in the series (365 k/cc), and the other had the second highest value of RBC (65 k/cc). FLAIR MR imaging cannot replace lumbar puncture to detect the presence of SAH. FLAIR MR imaging findings are infrequently positive (16.7%) when CT findings are negative for SAH. This is likely because there is a minimum concentration of RBC/cc that must be exceeded for CSF to become hyperintense on FLAIR MR images.American Journal of Neuroradiology 05/2004; 25(4):545-50. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The radiologic investigation of the optic nerve plays an integral part in the diagnostic evaluation of diverse lesions of the optic pathways including inflammatory diseases, vascular disorders and benign and malignant tumors and these radiologic modalities consist principally of CT and MR imaging and, in vascular lesions, MR angiography and conventional angiography. The selection of radiologic studies and their focus is based on the ophthalmologic examination where the ophthalmologist can often determine the suspected location of lesions in the anterior or posterior visual pathways. Furthermore, inspection of the eye, including adnexal structures and funduscopy, provides additional information in the clinical assessment of these patients. With technical advances in the last few years, CT and MR imaging can detect lesions and determine their location and extent with high sensitivity and specificity. This article discusses the radiologic, clinical, and pathologic evaluation of the optic nerve.Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 03/2005; 15(1):175-201. DOI:10.1016/j.nic.2005.02.011 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis, which affects African Americans more than it does other racial/ethnic groups, only rarely manifests initially as spinal cord dysfunction. This paper presents the findings of eight patients with spinal cord dysfunction as part of a presentation of sarcoidosis. After reviewing these cases, we devised an algorithm to diagnose and manage spinal cord sarcoidosis.Journal of the National Medical Association 07/2006; 98(6):965-76. · 0.96 Impact Factor