Deletion of the MAG1 DNA glycosylase gene suppresses alkylation-induced killing and mutagenesis in yeast cells lacking AP endonucleases
ABSTRACT DNA base excision repair (BER) is initiated by DNA glycosylases that recognize and remove damaged bases. The phosphate backbone adjacent to the resulting apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site is then cleaved by an AP endonuclease or glycosylase-associated AP lyase to invoke subsequent BER steps. We have used a genetic approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to address whether AP sites are blocks to DNA replication and the biological consequences if AP sites persist in the genome. We found that yeast cells deficient in the two AP endonucleases (apn1 apn2 double mutant) are extremely sensitive to killing by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), a model DNA alkylating agent. Interestingly, this sensitivity can be reduced up to 2500-fold by deleting the MAG1 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase gene, suggesting that Mag1 not only removes lethal base lesions, but also benign lesions and possibly normal bases, and that the resulting AP sites are highly toxic to the cells. This rescuing effect appears to be specific for DNA alkylation damage, since the mag1 mutation reduces killing effects of two other DNA alkylating agents, but does not alter the sensitivity of apn cells to killing by UV, gamma-ray or H(2)O(2). Our mutagenesis assays indicate that nearly half of spontaneous and almost all MMS-induced mutations in the AP endonuclease-deficient cells are due to Mag1 DNA glycosylase activity. Although the DNA replication apparatus appears to be incapable of replicating past AP sites, Polzeta-mediated translesion synthesis is able to bypass AP sites, and accounts for all spontaneous and MMS-induced mutagenesis in the AP endonuclease-deficient cells. These results allow us to delineate base lesion flow within the BER pathway and link AP sites to other DNA damage repair and tolerance pathways.
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ABSTRACT: Yeast-based reporter assays are useful for detecting various genotoxic chemicals. We established a genotoxicity assay using recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, each containing a reporter plasmid with the secretory luciferase gene from Cypridina noctiluca, driven by a DNA damage-responsive promoter of the yeast RNR3 gene. This system detected the genotoxicity of methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) as sensitively as conventional yeast-based reporter assays, using the β-galactosidase gene in a concentration-dependent manner; it also detects four other genotoxic chemicals, allowing us to monitor DNA damage easily by skipping the cell extraction process for the assay. We examined Cypridina luciferase levels induced by MMS and three antitumour agents using a set of BY4741-derived deletion mutants, each defective in a DNA repair pathway or DNA damage checkpoint. Luciferase activities were particularly enhanced in mutant strains with mms2 Δ and mag1 Δ by exposure to MMS, rad59 Δ and mlh1 Δ to camptothecin and mms2 Δ and mlh1 Δ to mitomycin C, respectively, compared with their parent strains. Enhanced reporter activities were also found in some DNA repair mutants with cisplatin. These observations suggest that this Cypridina secretory luciferase reporter assay using yeast DNA repair mutants offers convenient and sensitive detection of the potential genotoxicity of numerous compounds, including antitumour drugs and studying the mechanisms of DNA damage response in yeast.Yeast 04/2011; 28(4):265-78. DOI:10.1002/yea.1837 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Translesion synthesis DNA polymerases contribute to DNA damage tolerance by mediating replication of damaged templates. Due to the low fidelity of these enzymes, lesion bypass is often mutagenic. We have previously shown that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the contribution of the error-prone DNA polymerase zeta (Polzeta) to replication and mutagenesis is greatly enhanced if the normal replisome is defective due to mutations in replication genes. Here we present evidence that this defective-replisome-induced mutagenesis (DRIM) results from the participation of Polzeta in the copying of undamaged DNA rather than from mutagenic lesion bypass. First, DRIM is not elevated in strains that have a high level of endogenous DNA lesions due to defects in nucleotide excision repair or base excision repair pathways. Second, DRIM remains unchanged when the level of endogenous oxidative DNA damage is decreased by using anaerobic growth conditions. Third, analysis of the spectrum of mutations occurring during DRIM reveals the characteristic error signature seen during replication of undamaged DNA by Polzeta in vitro. These results extend earlier findings in Escherichia coli indicating that Y-family DNA polymerases can contribute to the copying of undamaged DNA. We also show that exposure of wild-type yeast cells to the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea causes a Polzeta-dependent increase in mutagenesis. This suggests that DRIM represents a response to replication impediment per se rather than to specific defects in the replisome components.Genetics 10/2009; 184(1):27-42. DOI:10.1534/genetics.109.107482 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA polymerase zeta (Polzeta) participates in translesion DNA synthesis and is involved in the generation of the majority of mutations induced by DNA damage. The mechanisms that license access of Polzeta to the primer terminus and regulate the extent of its participation in genome replication are poorly understood. The Polzeta-dependent damage-induced mutagenesis requires monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) that is triggered by exposure to mutagens. We show that Polzeta contributes to DNA replication and causes mutagenesis not only in response to DNA damage but also in response to malfunction of normal replicative machinery due to mutations in replication genes. These replication defects lead to ubiquitination of PCNA even in the absence of DNA damage. Unlike damage-induced mutagenesis, the Polzeta-dependent spontaneous mutagenesis in replication mutants is reduced in strains defective in both ubiquitination and sumoylation of Lys164 of PCNA. Additionally, studies of a PCNA mutant defective for functional interactions with Polzeta, but not for monoubiquitination by the Rad6/Rad18 complex demonstrate a role for PCNA in regulating the mutagenic activity of Polzeta separate from its modification at Lys164.The EMBO Journal 10/2006; 25(18):4316-25. DOI:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601320 · 10.75 Impact Factor