A bacterial cytochrome c heme lyase - CcmF forms a complex with the heme chaperone CcmE and CcmH but not with apocytochrome c
ABSTRACT Biogenesis of c-type cytochromes in Escherichia coli involves a number of membrane proteins (CcmA-H), which are required for the transfer of heme to the periplasmically located apocytochrome c. The pathway includes (i) covalent, transient binding of heme to the periplasmic domain of the heme chaperone CcmE; (ii) the subsequent release of heme; and (iii) transfer and covalent attachment of heme to apocytochrome c. Here, we report that CcmF is a key player in the late steps of cytochrome c maturation. We demonstrate that the conserved histidines His-173, His-261, His-303, and His-491 and the tryptophan-rich signature motif of the CcmF protein family are functionally required. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CcmF interacts directly with the heme donor CcmE and with CcmH but not with apocytochrome c. We propose that CcmFH forms a bacterial heme lyase complex for the transfer of heme from CcmE to apocytochrome c.
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ABSTRACT: In the process of cytochrome c maturation, heme groups are covalently attached to reduced cysteines of specific heme-binding motifs (CXXCH) in an apocytochrome c sequence. In Escherichia coli, the CcmH protein maintains apo-protein cysteines in a reduced state prior to heme attachment. We have purified and biophysically, as well as structurally characterized the soluble, N-terminal domain of E. coli CcmH that carries the functionally relevant LRCXXC-motif. In contrast to a recently presented structure of the homologous domain from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the E. coli protein forms a tightly interlinked dimer by swapping its N-terminal helix between two monomers. We propose that an altered environment of the functional motif may help to discern between the two redox partners CcmG and apocytochrome c.FEBS Letters 08/2008; 582(18):2779-86. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2008.07.007 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have analyzed the relationships of homologues of the Escherichia coli CcmC protein for probable topological features and evolutionary relationships. We present bioinformatic evidence suggesting that the integral membrane proteins CcmC (E. coli; cytochrome c biogenesis System I), CcmF (E. coli; cytochrome c biogenesis System I) and ResC (Bacillus subtilis; cytochrome c biogenesis System II) are all related. Though the molecular functions of these proteins have not been fully described, they appear to be involved in the provision of heme to c-type cytochromes, and so we have named them the putative Heme Handling Protein (HHP) family (TC #9.B.14). Members of this family exhibit 6, 8, 10, 11, 13 or 15 putative transmembrane segments (TMSs). We show that intragenic triplication of a 2 TMS element gave rise to a protein with a 6 TMS topology, exemplified by CcmC. This basic 6 TMS unit then gave rise to two distinct types of proteins with 8 TMSs, exemplified by ResC and the archaeal CcmC, and these further underwent fusional or insertional events yielding proteins with 10, 11 and 13 TMSs (ResC homologues) as well as 15 TMSs (CcmF homologues). Specific evolutionary pathways taken are proposed. This work provides the first evidence for the pathway of appearance of distantly related proteins required for post-translational maturation of c-type cytochromes in bacteria, plants, protozoans and archaea.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/2007; 1768(9):2164-81. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2007.04.022 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: C-type cytochromes are characterized by post-translational covalent attachment of heme to thiols that occur in a Cys-Xxx-Xxx-Cys-His motif. Three distinct biogenesis systems are known for this heme attachment. Archaea are now shown to contain a significantly modified form of cytochrome c maturation System I (the Ccm system). The most notable adaptation relative to the well-studied apparatus from proteobacteria and plants is a novel form of the heme chaperone CcmE, lacking the highly conserved histidine that covalently binds heme and is essential for function in Escherichia coli. In most archaeal CcmEs this histidine, normally found in a His-Xxx-Xxx-Xxx-Tyr motif, is replaced by a cysteine residue that occurs in a Cys-Xxx-Xxx-Xxx-Tyr motif. The CcmEs from two halobacteria contain yet another form of CcmE, having HxxxHxxxH approximately corresponding in alignment to the H/CxxxY motif. The CxxxY-type of CcmE is, surprisingly, also found in some bacterial genomes (including Desulfovibrio species). All of the modified CcmEs cluster together in a phylogenetic tree, as do other Ccm proteins from the same organisms. Significantly, CcmH is absent from all of the complete archaeal genomes we have studied, and also from most of the bacterial genomes that have CxxxY-type CcmE.FEBS Letters 10/2006; 580(20):4827-34. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2006.07.073 · 3.34 Impact Factor