Alternative splice variants of alpha 7 beta 1 integrin selectively recognize different laminin isoforms.
ABSTRACT The integrin alpha(7)beta(1) occurs in several cytoplasmic (alpha(7A), alpha(7B)) and extracellular splice variants (alpha(7X1), alpha(7X2)), which are differentially expressed during development of skeletal and heart muscle. The extracellular variants result from the alternative splicing of exons X1 and X2, corresponding to a segment within the putative ligand binding domain. To study the specificity and affinity of the X1/X2 variants to different laminin isoforms, soluble alpha(7)beta(1) complexes were prepared by recombinant coexpression of the extracellular domains of the alpha- and beta-subunits. The binding of these complexes to purified ligands was measured by solid phase binding assays. Surprisingly, the alternative splice variants revealed different and specific affinities to different laminin isoforms. While the alpha(7X2) variant bound much more strongly to laminin-1 than the alpha(7X1) variant, the latter showed a high affinity binding to laminins-8 and -10/11. Laminin-2, the major laminin isoform in skeletal muscle, was recognized by both variants, whereas none of the two variants were able to interact with laminin-5. A specific blocking antibody inhibited the binding of both variants to all laminins tested, indicating the involvement of common epitopes in alpha(7X1)beta(1) and alpha(7X2)beta(1). Because laminin-8 and -10/11 as well as alpha(7X1) are expressed in developing skeletal and cardiac muscle, these findings suggest that alpha(7X1)beta(1) may represent a physiological receptor with novel specificities for laminin-8 and -10.
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ABSTRACT: The dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) is found at the muscle fiber sarcolemma and forms an essential structural link between the basal lamina and internal cytoskeleton. In a set of muscular dystrophies known as the dystroglycanopathies, hypoglycosylation of the DGC component α-dystroglycan results in reduced binding to basal lamina components, a loss in structural stability, and repeated cycles of muscle fiber degeneration and regeneration. The satellite cells are the key stem cells responsible for muscle repair and reside between the basal lamina and sarcolemma. In this study, we aimed to determine whether pathological changes associated with the dystroglycanopathies affect satellite cell function. In the Large(myd) mouse dystroglycanopathy model, satellite cells are present in significantly greater numbers but display reduced proliferation on their native muscle fibers in vitro, compared with wild type. However, when removed from their fiber, proliferation in culture is restored to that of wild type. Immunohistochemical analysis of Large(myd) muscle reveals alterations to the basal lamina and interstitium, including marked disorganization of laminin, upregulation of fibronectin and collagens. Proliferation and differentiation of wild-type satellite cells is impaired when cultured on substrates such as collagen and fibronectin, compared with laminins. When engrafted into irradiated tibialis anterior muscles of mdx-nude mice, wild-type satellite cells expanded on laminin contribute significantly more to muscle regeneration than those expanded on fibronectin. These results suggest that defects in α-dystroglycan glycosylation are associated with an alteration in the satellite cell niche, and that regenerative potential in the dystroglycanopathies may be perturbed. STEM Cells2012;30:2330-2341.Stem Cells 08/2012; 30(10):2330-41. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In our previous studies, we showed laminin binds α-dystroglycan in the dystrophin glycoprotein complex and initiates cell signaling pathways. Here, differentiated C2C12 myocytes serve as a model of skeletal muscle. C2C12 cells have a biphasic response to the laminin-α(1) laminin globular (LG) 4-5 domains (1E3) dependent on the concentration used; at low concentrations of 1E3 (<1 μg/ml), myoblast proliferation is increased while higher concentrations (>1 μg/ml) cause apoptosis in myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. This alters the activation of the transcription factors activator protein-1 (AP-1) and NF-κB via laminin-dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC)-src-grb2-sos1-Rac1-Pak1-c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)p46 and laminin-DGC-Gβγ-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathways, respectively. A specific antibody against Ser(63) phosphorylated c-jun completely blocks or supershifts the AP-1-DNA binding resulting from laminin binding but only partially blocks or supershifts the AP-1-DNA binding resulting from 1E3. This suggests that AP-1 contains phosphorylated c-jun in the presence of hololaminin but contains a different composition in the presence of 1E3. Nuclear NF-κB was only upregulated by a low concentration of 1E3 and is then diminished by a higher concentration; it also has a biphasic response. Nuclear localization of NF-κB is affected by PI3K/Akt signaling, and DGC associated PI3K activity also shows a biphasic response to 1E3. Furthermore, our data suggest that activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase participates in the cell survival pathway and suggest that NF-κB is involved in both survival and cell death. A model is presented which incorporates these observations.AJP Cell Physiology 12/2011; 302(6):C902-14. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The somatosensory nervous system is responsible for the transmission of a multitude of sensory information from specialized receptors in the periphery to the central nervous system. Sensory afferents can potentially be damaged at several sites: in the peripheral nerve; the dorsal root; or the dorsal columns of the spinal cord; and the success of regeneration depends on the site of injury. The regeneration of peripheral nerve branches following injury is relatively successful compared to central branches. This is largely attributed to the presence of neurotrophic factors and a Schwann cell basement membrane rich in permissive extracellular matrix (ECM) components which promote axonal regeneration in the peripheral nerve. Modulation of the ECM environment and/or neuronal integrins may enhance regenerative potential of sensory neurons following peripheral or central nerve injury or disease. This review describes the interactions between integrins and ECM molecules (particularly the growth supportive ligands, laminin, and fibronectin; and the growth inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs)) during development and regeneration of sensory neurons following physical injury or neuropathy.Developmental Neurobiology 07/2011; 71(11):1054-72. · 4.42 Impact Factor